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ALSO: Russian Front 



Volume 27, Number 1 



Kremlin 



TP: Stalingrad 







"fc&or 







The AVALON HILL 



^ 



GENERAL 

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Copyrigh 



ISSN Or. .. 




THE OFFENSIVE APPROACH 

Soviet Strategy for RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 



TO THE GATES 

The Historical RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 



DIVISIONS, CORPS & ARMIES 

Realistic RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 



COMING ATTRACTIONS 

Variations to Old Favorites 



ALPINE HUNTERS 

Reference Notes for ASL 



BATTLES IN THE KREMLIN 

Historical SetUp for 12th Party Congress 



AREA NEWS 

The Latest in Competitive Gaming 



COMPUTER CORNER 

OnLine 



SPORTS SPECIAL 

The Great Teams 



ONWARD TO VOLOGDA 

An Axis 1941 Winter Offensive 



STALINGRAD DEFENDED 

The Russian Defense in TP:S 



By David Buckland 



17 

By R.B. and R.E. Allred 



23 
By Antonio Munoz 



33 

By Don Greenwood 



35 

By Steven Swann 



41 

By Wayne Ingalls 



43 

By Don Burdick 



44 

By John Huff 



47 
By James Gordon 



48 

By John Hyler 



SO 
By Don Greenwood 




Perhaps no period in history has been more 
widely romanticized in contemporary 
accounts than the Golden Age of Piracy near 
the turn of the 18th Century. Like the gunmen 
of the Wild West, their names have passed 
into legend forevermore and read like a 
veritable Rogue's Gallery of history's 
greatest villains. 

Edward Teach (Blackbeard) . . . 

Bartholomew Roberts . . . 

Long Ben Avery . . . 

William Kidd . . . and a score more of the 
worst cutthroats to ever hoist a Jolly Roger 
now sail the Spanish Main again in search of 
plunder and adventure. A veritable cornucopia 
of sea faring lore is relived in every game of 
BLACKBEARD. 




A highly-informative game, BLACKBEARD puts to 
rest several myths about those who went "A-Pyrating", 
while relating the careers of another era's scoundrels 
who became infamous, yet were often admired by the 
common man for their misdeeds. Players work both 
sides of the law. Each commands several historic 
Pirates plus King's Commissioners— a form of sea- 
going bounty hunter sent out to bring them to their 
final day of reckoning. The pace is dictated by a Fast 
Action card system that brings merchants over the 
horizon to be plundered or ports to be raided and 
sacked. If only it were so easy. An ill wind can bring 
all manner of misfortune . . . warships, storms, hull 
rot, scurvy, or even mutiny among one's own crew. 
A good Pirate needs to know when to make himself 
scarce and when it's wise to reward his mates with a 
little harmless fun. Alas, a poor soul can't even find 
relief in a bottle without some scoundrel running ye 
thru amidst your debauchery and revelry. Nor does it 
hurt to cross the right palm with some ill-gotten 
pieces-of-eight when it comes rime to rest and refit. 
No sirree . . . there's more to this Pyrating than 
simple swordplay and if you expect to avoid the 
gallows, you'd best learn your lessons well for there 
are few winners in the Great Age of Piracy. 

BLACKBEARD can be played by one to four hardy 
mates, ages 12 and up. 

BLACKBEARD is available now for $35.00 from 
The Avalon Hill Game Company (4517 Harford Road, 
Baltimore, MD 21214). Please add $5.00 for shipping 
and handling (Canadian orders, $10.00; overseas, $15.00). 
Maryland residents please add 5% state sales tax. 












Part 139 



* 



The following "guest" editorial is taken 
from a piece entitled "Portrait of the Gamer 
as Enemy" by Mr. Chris Crawford in his 
JOURNAL OF COMPUTER GAME DESIGN 
(Vol 4, No. 1; October 1990). While Mr. 
Crawford is addressing a problem facing com- 
puter game companies, I believe his com- 
ments are equally applicable to the war- 
gaming hobby. As you read the following, 
dwell on the parallels. This editorial, with 
some editing of material specifically related 
to published computer designs, has been 
reprinted with Mr. Crawford's kind permission. 
Would that wargaming had had someone as 
able to point out the pitfalls we were facing 
two decades ago. 

Picture the typical computer game en- 
thusiast. He's a white male in his twenties, 
well-educated, and spends a lot of time every 
week playing games. He subscribes to Com- 
puter Gaming World, possibly Questbusters 
or some other specialist periodical. He is an 
opinion leader, guiding his friends in their pur- 
chase decisions. He spends a lot of time on 
national networks such as GEnie or Prodigy 
discussing the latest games. Most important, 
he spends a lot of money every year on 
games. 

Now picture a cross-hairs centered on his 
head. Paint an evil moustache on his face, and 
an ugly leer on his lips. Picture him as "The 
Enemy". 

This picture doesn't seem right, does it? 
The games aficionado is our bread-and-butter 
customer, the mainstay of our business. He 
loves games and loves to talk about games. 
He's our kinda guy, the last person in the 
world you would want to think of as 'The 
Enemy". 

But there's a problem. You see, Joe En- 
thusiast is an activist. He makes sure that his 
opinions are known by the publishers. His 
voice carries a lot of weight because he 
speaks up. To use the polarized nomenclature 
of an earlier time, Joe is part of the "Vocal 
Minority" (as opposed to the "Silent Majority" 
who don't send in their warranty cards or 
write letters or post messages on the nets). 

"Why is this a problem?" you wonder. 
What could be more fair than to listen to the 
people who care enough to speak up? The 



problem here is that what may be fair to some 
people may be unhealthy for the industry. By 
listening to these people, we who create 
games could end up killing the industry. To 
explain how this could happen, 1 need to give 
some background. 

Let's think of our customers in statistical 
terms. We know a lot about the average 
player, but the market is composed of people 
who fall above and below the average. There 
have been lots of market analyses, and their 
results show a lot of scatter but, roughly 
speaking, our average player has gotten about 
four years older in the last eight years. This 
means that we're losing people as they age. 
The typical piayer enters the audience at a 
younger-than-average age, stays in for a few 
years, and then gets out. 

Assuming that our goal is to have the 
largest possible base of players, our problem 
is two-fold: 1 ) to get more people to enter the 
marketplace; and 2) to get them to stay in 
longer. 

This involves more than merely getting 
computer owners to try one game. Our 
problem is to get them to try several games, 
to get them to really dip their toes in the 
water. We face two obstacles here. 

First is the general bias against games as 
an adult form of entertainment. "Games are 
for kids; playing games is childish." Our best 
strategy here is to differentiate computer 
games from video games. If we can estab- 
lish a public perception that computer games 
are to video games as movies are to cartoons, 
we can whittle away at that long-held bias. 
But that's another editorial . . . 

The second obstacle is the likelihood that 
the novice player will get burned by purchas- 
ing a game that is completely beyond his ken. 
The most dangerous games here are the 
sequels, games based on earlier games in a 
long line that goes far back into the past . . . 

Because these companies listen to their 
customers (or rather, to the ones who talk), 
they refine their game systems with each new 
release. But— and this is the key point— 
the refinements reflect the tastes of the 
aficionados, the people who spend a lot of 
time with the games. These people want 
more depth, more complexity, more trickiness. 



And so the games get hairier with each new 
edition. 

Guess what happens to the poor slob of 
a beginner who buys one of these games? 
The game stomps him flat in the first five 
minutes and makes him feel like a fool. This 
person is not going to become an avid gamer. 
Thus, these games poison the well of new 
players. This is not what we as an industry 
want. 

And let's dispense with the marketing bull 
that these games are as accessible to the 
beginner even as they are challenging to 
the enthusiast. That's ad copy— not honest 
opinion. 

The magazines contribute to the problem. 
Beginners don't buy magazines like Computer 
Gaming World or Questbusters; aficionados 
do. These magazines therefore quite properly 
reflect the tastes of the aficionados, bringing 
further pressure to bear on developers to 
make the games more suitable for aficionados 
—and less suitable for beginners. 

Our second broad problem is to keep play- 
ers interested once they've been hooked. This 
is the major argument in support of catering 
to the aficionados, but I think that it is mis- 
placed. The key question here is, "do the 
aficionados make up the majority of the 
gaming audience?" 

I don't know, and I don't think that any- 
body knows. It's almost impossible to tell the 
difference between the player who hopefully 
buys a dozen games, trying to find one that 
strikes his fancy, and the player who avidly 
buys a dozen games, loving every one When 
the only one who's talking is the aficionado, 
it's all too easy to congratulate ourselves that 
we've done a great job. When the former 
buyer gives up and abandons the market, we 
shrug our shoulders and ignore the implicit 
message. 

It can be argued that the success of the 
games that cater to the aficionados is the 
best proof that we are doing something right 
That's true— but it's also true that the slow 
aging of the gaming population strongly sug- 
gests that we are losing a lot of our audience 
Maybe we are doing something right; could 
we be doing "righter" if we weren't losing so 
many players. 

We have a sobering precedent to consider. 
Back in the 1970s a company called SPI re- 
juvenated the flagging board wargame indus- 
try and sparked a boom in the business. For 
five years, SPI rode high with a series of im- 
pressive designs. One of SPI's "secret 
weapons" was its feedback survey. The prin- 
cipals at SPI paid close attention to those sur- 
vey cards, and as a result the SPI games grew 
progressively bigger, more complex, and more 
obscure Introductory level games grew rare, 
and game rules manuals became longer and 
longer. Unsurprisingly, SPI began a long 
downhill slide, finally collapsing in 1981. 
The board wargames industry didn't die, but 
it never regained the luster of its heyday in 
the mid-7 Os. There were many reasons for 
the decline, of course, but catering to the 
aficionados was one of them. 



Continued on Page 22, Column 3 






THE 25 BESTSELLING GAMES 




I CODE OF BUSHIDO 

*fl232 $4Q 
The newest ASL module 

pa&ed on Japanese 

exploits In three areas 

of cancel 



2. STATJS PRO FOOTBALL 

#9S5D $36 

A s'aE'srtcal re-creation 

Of an enure- AFL/WFL 

BBEiSDn,, includes 
individual u'oye* cards. 



3 THIRD FLEET 

#3iD031 $36 

Mcdem Naval combat 

In Ihraa theatres. 

N. AHantlc, Caribbean, 

arid E Atlantic. 



Based on sales through 1990, here are the 25 best-selling 
Avalon Hill and Victory Games products. 

Some are new titles; many are staples that have been in 
the line for a decade or more. 

Most Avalon Hill/Victory Games remain popular year after 
year due to the high recommendation rate these titles 
enjoy. More than just mediums for recreational relaxation, 
these games offer insights into the real-fife historical events 
they portray. Hundreds of thousands of serious gamers 
swear by their authenticity. 

No retailer who is serious about games can be without 
these titles for very long- — and survive. 




i GULF STFIIKF 

•30040 S4U 

Combines curreril lena, air, 

and sea operations In the Gull 

includes brand rww modula, 

DESERT SHIELD 



5. PAST LIVES 

I639Q SJ3 

Artistically gorgeous leisu?e 

time game in wtilch 2 so S 

players determino who IhEiy 

were in a pasl Hie. 



6. STATIS PRO BASKETBALL 

»9260 126 

A seal gerrie ulltizlrtfl player 

card3 represeriling every 

player wna played in the 

previous NBA season 



NEW WOULD 

525 

Two to 6 players laKe Hie 

part ol colonizing European 

countries during Ihs 1 rj 1 ! ■ 

end 18lh ceniuries 



S REPUBLIC OF ROME 

HUM 135 

A diplomatic game for 3 to 5 

players vying (of power 

during me days ol 

Julius Caesar 



9 CARRIER 

» 30033 $36 

An aulCentie re-orealion 

ol me S.W Paclllc WWII 

campaign. Designed lor 

sollsarre play, only 



iwn iiwi if ri 




10 9LIND JUSTICE 

*63S5 525 

Game ol social tateraclion 

tor £ lp 6 players acting 

as plaiMiiT and jtify in 

ma) life Cases. 





■1^ - ■ TV r^^^M 


ll r) a jS 




<J\ HrJwiFKEf J&wtfti Uoetaf Raits 

■ 




11 CIVILISATION 
r*637 S35 

A 3 10 7 piaver came 

requiring sFdlllu! 

political, economic, and 

military marteuv&ririGi 



iH DIPLOMACY 

Up so 7-,p3ayar Hall Ol Fame 

flame dI International Intrigue 

involving European powers 

cifca 1901. 



13. ASL 

MB7Q $3$ 

Complete sel ol rules. 

in a 2-Nr.g dander, 

required lor pJay of alt 

ASL modules. 



14. CIVIL WAR 
#3D0C3 $25 
A dynamic portrait ol the 
immense stfu>gg3e r from 
lis inlancy to lis final gaso 
on a grand strategic level 



IS. PAY Dial 

rf915Q S2S 

..tcludos Team Chans ol atl 

AFUNFl teams, designed to 

re-create real isle past season 

ol ay for 2 players 




17 



Deluxe flUNEQUEST 

#857 $23.9g 

Time-Jested rote-pi^yr-p 

system wllh many 

SduentLcrag; #1 in 

Greal Briton 



1B GETTYSBURG 
*731 Si 7 

:-i a serasa or entry 
level wargamas desionad 
lo hrlfig new peoole into 

\ha nobby. 



19. 5TH PLEET 

*3KK30 336 

A stnrulalfon of modern naval 

combat In l.oe Pension Gull 

end Red Sea lo Strait oi 

Malacca. 



20. .ACQUJflU 

*GA1 40 $25 

Leisure lime game Df 

Investment where 2 to S 

players attempt to build 

the largest hole! smpOo. 



21 



STAHS PRO BASE BAM. 

#9240 540 

Re-creates oast season 

wilh Player Cards, 

MLPA approved; 

outstanding- soHtelfe play. 



22. WRA5SLIN' 

#9flS0 its 

Aquick-playmg. longuerin'Cheek 

strategy card game spool 

ol professional wrestling; 

far any number of players. 



.:|^X"H 







See them at your favorite game, hobby or gift store. 

If not available locally feel free to order direct from us. 

Be sure to add postage from chart printed on the 

Order Envelope inserted elsewhere. 






RTOlHT3iTC17Ti:nll 



ZA. THIRD HEtCH 

#613 126 

vdsed "best game ol all 

lime' T^o years running; 

re-creates entire European 

Iheatro in WWfl 



25: NAPOLEON J S BATTLES 

Our flrsi sel Of boxed 

rules and piaylmg akts for 

use wJI+i 3-D mini Blu res 

oMhe era. 



ame bompan 
Victory Games 



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4517 Harford Road * Baltimore, MD 21214 * 301-254-9200 * FAX 301-254-0991 
To Place Orders Quickly, Call TOLL FREE 1-800-999-3222 




6 




THE OFFENSIVE APPROACH 

Soviet Strategy for RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 



By David Buckland 



To my mind, the more difficult role to take 
in RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN is that of the Russian. 
This is not just a question of play balance but also, 
as several have pointed out, of psychology. Even 
in a mere boardgame, it is profoundly depress- 
ing to be hammered for turn after turn by Ger- 
many's impressive war machine. I am therefore 
concerned here with the first half of the game, 
when you — as the Russian player — are trying to 
avoid immediate defeat. Though there will be a 
respite during the winters, you are on the stra- 
tegic defensive throughout. In those games where 
the Russian does not go under, this period will 
usually last until some time in 1943, when the 
tide will mm (if the Russian player has any chance 
of winning, that is). 

Running through much of what I have to say 
below is a basic premise, namely, that partly 
because of the pyschological element Russian 
play early in TRC is often overly timid and 
defense -oriented. A more aggressive approach, 
even in periods when the German offensives are 
in full swing, has great potential benefits that can 
last well after the end of any counterattack itself. 
Losses might be inflicted upon the German 
forces; given that most Russian attacks are at low 
odds, this cannot be counted upon, but any will 
cause him pause. A Russian counterattack carries 
a strong element of surprise; it can help restore 
the pyschological balance by creating uncertainty 



in his mind. The strategic dislocation of a Russian 
assault before 1943 can force the German to 
switch resources away from the spearheads 
towards areas chosen by the Russian player. And 
last, several such counterattacks (or one success- 
ful one) can result in German over-caution. An 
offensive-minded Russian strategy in the early 
half of TRC is not without risks, but the Russian 
player should be thinking, not just of survival, 
but of winning. An offense is indeed the best 
defense, or so I believe. 

This centra] "aggressive" theme is perhaps 
not in the forefront in the following sections deal- 
ing with the 1941 turns, partly because of the 
severe limitations on Russian resources. Too, 
there have been several excellent articles on this 
stage of the game that have already appeared in 
The GENERAL, making a more general approach 
possible in my work. So after a brief survey of 
the initial turns, I intend to concentrate on Soviet 
options for offensives. 

Finally, by way of introduction, a note on the 
assumptions I make as to Optional Rules and 
Victory Conditions. There are two, both personal 
preferences, which I trust will not strike readers 
as too idiosyncratic. First, I am a believer in off- 
board rail movement (Rule 26.6). It is true that 
the Russian fought fiercely at Voronezh in 1942 
.to preserve their most direct railway line to the 
southern battlefields (it ran through the east of 



that city), and that the loss of their communica- 
tion links east of the Carpathians was a blow to 
the Germans in 1 944; but it seems to me to do 
less violence to "realism" to enforce this rule 
than to pretend, for instance, that once Lvov has 
fallen all links between Germany and Rumania 
have been cut. Secondly, I prefer the Campaign 
Victory Conditions. Whilst I have enjoyed a 
number of exciting TRC games with the "Sud- 
den Death" rules, I have also had my share of 
ahistorical absurdities result. The Campaign ver- 
sion has the added advantage that there is the pos- 
sibility of a "Draw" — often a fairer reflection 
of the way the match has gone than a contrived 
result one way or the other. Personally, as the 
Russian player, I always feel I have achieved a 
moral victory if I manage to reverse the Axis tide 
and start along the road to Berlin. 

1941 

This does not look to be a good year to plan 
Soviet victory. The discrepancies between the 
size and quality of the two armies are at their most 
marked (especially after the first turn), German 
airpower is at its maximum, and the Russians 
must start with the bulk of their army strung out 
in penny-packets along the frontier for the Ger- 
mans to annihilate. Nevertheless, even this early 
in the play, you can begin the accumulation of 



the small advantages that could mean the differ- 
ence between failure and success. Nor should you 
he intimidated by German striking power; often 
the German cannot achieve all that he wishes to, 
since even in 1941 his range and resources are 
limited. He has a lot to do before the snow ialls 
if he is to win the game. In other words, he too 
has some problems. 

Detailed tactical analysis of the Russian set- 
up I do not intend to cover; this has already been 
the subject of fine articles by Richard Jarvinen 
(Vol. 13, No. 6 and Vol. 17, No. 6), Richard 
Hamblen (in his commentary on the SR in Vol. 
16, No. 4), Paul Jameson (Vol. 16, No. 5) and 
Robert Harmon (Vol. 21, No. 1). However, I 
cannot resist the opportunity to make a few 
general points. 

An important concept in any Russian defense, 
especially in 1941 , is the use of either the Russian 
army, or Russian territory, to bear the brunt of 
the German attack. In other words, you have a 
choice: either sacrifice the army to hold up the 
German advance, or sacrifice space to preserve 
the army by fleeing out of range. In most in- 
stances, these are mutually exclusive— but not 
during the set-up. The deployment restrictions 
force the Red Army to be set up in a line that 
is almost without exception two hexes wide. Cer- 
tainly you can make the German breakthroughs 
and deep penetrations easier for your opponent, 
but by doing so you are not guaranteeing that 
more of your units will survive. There is no 
terrain in the military districts good enough, nor 
is two hexes sufficient depth, that any defense 
mounted cannot be frontally assaulted and smashed 
by the Germans and their Stukas. It is far too easy 
for the Axis player to capture all possible front- 
line supply bases for Russian pockets; Kaunas, 
Brest, Lvov are all minor cities with clear terrain 
between them and the frontier (the Odessa dis- 
trict units are stationed too far from that city to 
make use of it for supply purposes). In short, the 
"stronger" defenses resulting from allowing easy 
German penetration are just as susceptible to 
attrition as the ami -breakthrough variety, while 
giving the enemy the benefit of quick territorial 
advances and a greater number of surrounded 
attacks. 

Therefore, I prefer initial deployment plans 
which aim to cause the maximum delay to the 
German advance, partly because they paradoxi- 
cally seem to offer a better chance of having some 
of your district forces left for your own opening 
move. The principle aims of such a defense would 
be the preservation of the Bug and Dvina river 
lines (except at enormous Axis cost) during the 
first German turn, and the preservation of routes 
of escape for such Russian units as are not 
destroyed. There are other schools of thought 
regarding the initial Russian set-up, with some 
valid reasoning behind them. 

May-June: 

After the initial Axis onslaught, two more 
turns will pass before substantial Russian rein- 
forcements arrive in the shape of railroaded 
Siberians in Sept/Oct 1941 . In most games, the 
Soviet player will not have sufficient troops to 
hold the Germans up for two complete turns, nor 
enough territory to sacrifice for two turns either. 
What you may well have, however, is enough 
of each to use it as a primary defense for one turn . 



Applying this concept of an "alternating 
defense" to the whole front, there are definite 
attractions to flinging everything in front of the 
Germans during your first turn; after all, when 
the Axis wade through your units in the July/ Aug 
turn, it could be their last of clear weather. 
"Mud", or even "Light Mud", in Sept/Oct 
could severely retard their advance, regardless 
of the strength of the Red Army. Reverse that 
sequence, and with the same weather the Red 
Army will he meeting in full panoply an enemy 
that can barely reach them but have needlessly 
given away much territory the turn before. How- 
ever, imposing an "alternating defense" over the 
whole front is overly simplistic. For one thing, 
in many games the Russian player will not have 
sufficient strength left, nor will he be able to get 
what he does have into position, to defend the 
long front with the army for even one turn. 

The answer to this problem lies in the fact 
that, for the first turns of the game, the Pripet 
Marshes effectively divide the front in half, and 
this means that a different approach can be used 
in each sector. Indeed, the different geography 
of north and south can have an important bear- 
ing on the Russian defense. 

Looking at the "south" first, the strategic 
geography (i.e., the Axis objectives once the 
frontier areas have fallen) dictates that priority 
will probably be the three replacement centers. 
Rostov, Dnepropetrovsk, Sevastopol, Kursk and 
Bryansk (if things go badly in the north) are in 
the second rank. The Axis Army Group South 
will rarely make greater progress than the cap- 
ture of all of these targets, and will often have 
to settle for less. The striking feature about all 
these objectives, save Sevastopol, is that a Ger- 
man force heading eastward from the frontier 
through the center of the Ukraine can us ally 
manage to threaten most of them simultaneously. 
For example, German forces used to take Kiev 
will be able the following turn to assault Bryansk, 
Kursk, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk and probably 
Stalino. By the same token, if the German player 
splits his forces to take more than one objective, 
both forces will remain within supporting distance 
of one another. By merely propelling his army 
further and further east, the German will come 
up against most of the desirable objectives in the 
south without having to divert resources 
elsewhere. 

All this makes the defense of the Ukraine quite 
difficult. There are too many targets that the Ger- 
man can threaten at the same time, by using his 
superior mobility, for them all to be defended 
properly— leaving you with some painful choices. 
A defense in front of these objectives to hold up 
your opponent on his second turn will postpone 
these problems for one precious turn. Physical 
geography favors this idea, with the Bug River 
covering almost the entire front and lying only 
a hex or two behind the border districts. Yet 
another factor in favor of constructing a strong 
southern defense in the first Russian turn is the 
fact that the enemy forces, given the Axis first- 
turn restrictions, faced are often less than those 
committed to the northern sector. 

Turning to the area north of the Pripet Marshes, 
the strategic geography is quite different. Riga, 
Minsk, Vitebsk and even Smolensk barely qualify 
as "objectives", since any self-respecting Ger- 
man player will take them. This leaves Bryansk 



(as a winter base), Moscow and Leningrad. Note 
that a single line of thrust into the north cannot 
garner all the main prizes. In addition, forces 
driving on Leningrad will in all probability be 
too far away to aid those in front of Moscow or 
Bryansk. 

Unlike the south, a first-turn stand in the north 
has some drawbacks. Any line designed to res- 
trict the German advance in the north to the same 
extent as the Bug River line in the south would 
mean stationing many units in open terrain, mak- 
ing losses higher and overruns easier. The best 
defensive position in the sector, the Dvina River, 
is a poor compromise on the first turn, being 
almost the same length as a line from Riga to 
Minsk and offering protection only to one of the 
obvious German 1941 objectives. In addition, it 
allows the German player some important ter- 
ritorial advances towards Moscow, while leav- 
ing the defenders within reach of a substantial 
part of the enemy forces committed in the north 
(especially the German infantry). 

A Russian plan to pack the southern line, 
while giving the enemy a relatively free hand in 
the north, during the first turn has some distinct 
advantages. However, there are no universal 
rules for the Russian defense in 1941, so it might 
be useful to look at a situation where this type 
of plan is not really practical. 

The results of a not untypical German open- 
ing move are shown in Figure 1. (Long-time 
readers will recognize this from the Series Replay 
in Vol. 16, No. 4; my sincere apologies to Beyma 
and Jarvinen for using them as guinea pigs.) Not 
an exceptional opening, but all are different and 
the peculiarities of this one should be mentioned. 
The German has responded to a defense designed 
to prevent breakthroughs by attempting to attri- 
tion the Red Army into the ground. This he has 
substantially succeeded in doing, since the four 
units left in the border districts are likely to die 
during the Russian turn (only the two armor units 
in the north have survived of the frontier forces). 
A flaw in the Russian set-up has been ruthlessly 
exploited to break the Bug line. Against this, the 
German player has made little territorial progress 
in the north, and is in many ways badly out of 
position (a common trade-off for heavy Russian 
casualties). Now for the Russian response. 

In the south, a 2-5 moves to U22 and a 6-3 
is in place in DD24, a 2-7 in JJ23, and 5-3 in 
Dnepropetrovsk, a 4-3 in Stalino and 3-7 in 
Rostov, another 2-7 in CC15 and a 4-3 in 
Kharkov. Perhaps the most important point in this 
sector is that, with the exception of Kiev, all the 
objectives are out of range of the German air- 
force. The best that the German can do during 
his upcoming turn against Stalino and Kharkov 
is a second impulse 1-1 (unsurrounded, due to 
the cavalry unit in CC15). A surrounded 2-1 
attack is possible against Dnepropetrovsk, but this 
carries a one-in-three chance of losing one of the 
participating panzer units. Penetration to the 
Dnepr and beyond will mean committing the Ger- 
man armor unsupported, making it vulnerable to 
counterattacks. 

The Soviet units in Sevastopol and Rostov are 
obviously anti -invasion defenses. With a 50% 
chance of any invaders being sunk, most Axis 
players will be reluctant to take the risk, espe- 
cially as this would leave them with only one 
more opportunity to use this valuable tactic. For 



8 

this reason, when the Russian unit shortage is 
really acute on their first turn, I often leave one 
or both cities ungarrisoned. As I shall explain 
later, both have greater significance than might 
appear and I would abandon them only in extmnis. 
Unable to seize ports, the Germans might use 
their putative July /Aug invasion to increase the 
odds on Odessa, Dnepropetrovsk or Stalino, 
Should they do so, then you may count it as a 
strategic gain for the Russian, for this would be 
an effective waste of an invasion on the part of 
the enemy. The armor unit in the Pripets (the 
Kiev replacement) is going for a 1-1 attack on 
HQ South. This kind of attack, if German dis- 
positions permit, will be the first Russian riposte 
to Barbarossa and is always worth the gamble, 
as long as excessive forces are not committed. 
Even if the attack does not succeed, it may make 
the German player more cautious in the place- 
ment of his HQ units in the future, thus restrict- 
ing the area they can threaten. 

Odessa is a sideshow. More or less whatever 
defense you decide to adopt in the south, a large 
unit placed in Odessa confers some substantial 
benefits. If the city is not to become a perma- 
nent thorn in the German side, it must be taken. 
The best time for the German player to do this 
is their own July/Aug turn, before the units used 
to subdue the city become entangled even fur- 
ther behind his front line. Without a Stuka, this 
will be difficult however: no better than 1-1 otitis 
on the first impulse (assuming that the 9th Army 
in AA25 dies in the Russian turn and that the three 
panzer corps which have broken through the mili- 
tary districts are used elsewhere). Better odds are 
possible on the 2nd impulse (2-1), but this will 
put the Axis units in question even further out 
of position. Once Odessa has fallen, it would be 
at least a turn before they can rejoin the action 
at the main front. In this particular instance, the 
units diverted to Odessa will be badly missed in 
the most important operations deeper in the 
Ukraine. Already then, in his July/Aug turn, Ger- 
man progress in this sector is overly dependent 
on a few panzer corps. 

The strategic gain for the Russian player in 
garrisonning Odessa so strongly is that, although 
the German needs to take the city, in actuality 
the issue in the south will be settled on the main 
front. Odessa is therefore a "sideshow", and the 
ratio of force the German player must commit 
to get reasonable odds makes it a good invest- 
ment for 'the Russian player. This concept of a 
sideshow objective, diverting German resources 
that would be better employed elsewhere, seems 
to me a useful Russian ploy during that period 
on the defensive in TRC. Pockets of units sur- 
viving the first turn in the military districts can 
fulfill this function; but for the most part, these 
diversions will be confined to the flanks of the 
broad advance. More on the subject of these flank 
sideshows later. 

As for the Russian response in the north: place 
two 3 -5s in Leningrad; a 4-3 each in G12 and 
E13 and EH; another 3-5 in H13; 2 -5s in P15, 
P16 and Q12; a 5-3 makes its way to N9. This 
move is designed to be compatible with that 
shown for the south above, and some readers may 
note the tactical imperfections that result. These 
are, principally, the use of too many of the 



Figure I: Hypothetical Situation at the end of German May/June 
LW1 Turn 




valuable Russian armor units in the front line, 
and the fact that the two armor units in Lenin- 
grad (in "reserve") would be better employed 
in the center or the south. Players wishing to give 
a little more ground in the south in order to 
preserve the army better in the north can no doubt 
think of many variations. 

In that part of the northern front west of 
Moscow, the intent has been to run out of range 
as far as possible from Stukas and 1st impulse 
attacks, with the same benefits as discussed in 
relation to the south— less attrition, less possibility 
of Axis surrounded attacks, and 2nd impulse 
attacks that can be delivered with panzers only 
(carrying the chance of the deadly "EX" result). 
All this, though at the cost of surrendering large 
tracts of territory . In front of Leningrad the object 
has been to create two non-A Vable lines of non- 
surroundable positions. Even if the Germans 
pound through all these defenders, the Russian 
player will still have the option of erecting another 
two-line defense in front of the city to face the 
enemy in their Sept/Oct turn. 

It is worth emphasizing once again that the 
strategic geography of the north differs markedly 
from that of the south. The two really worthwhile 
targets in the area (Leningrad and Moscow) 
require two divergent thrusts. Of the two, 
Moscow is, for obvious reasons, much the most 
important. Leningrad is, in fact, the most signifi- 
cant of the "flank sideshows" mentioned earlier; 
forces diverted in its direction will be too far away 
to assist in the crucial battles in front of Moscow, 
and once having captured Leningrad will have 
a long trek to reach more active parts of the front. 

Another notable difference between north and 
south is that the former tends to be an all-or- 
nothing struggle for the German player. The dis- 
parate drives on Leningrad and Moscow will 
either take their objectives, or the German will 
be wintering in Tallinn, Vitebsk, Smolensk and 
Bryansk, all of which he can capture without in- 
ordinate effort anyway. In the south, by contrast, 
there is a sufficiency of targets in the same area 
such that the German is bound to pick up some 
of them even if he fails to sweep up the lot. The 
German might get as far as Tula or Kalinin, but 
both these cities are vulnerable to Soviet winter 
counter-offensives, being easily surrounded and 
not affording (as minor cities) any defensive 
benefits of themselves. If he has the units to spare, 
the Russian may find it worthwhile to occupy the 
Valdai Hills (the mountains around K10) just to 
insure that Kalinin remains outflanked. 

Back to the north. The heavy losses among 
the Russians on the first turn would indicate a 
policy of running everywhere. The principal 
exception to this is the approaches to Leningrad, 
which remain within range of the Stukas on the 
first impulse and the German infantry on the 
second. There are a number of reasons why this 
apparent sacrifice might be in your best interest. 
As has already been implied, Axis forces sent in 
the direction of Leningrad will weaken the drive 
towards Moscow, The loss of Leningrad in 1941 
is unfortunate, but to lose Moscow that early can 
be fatal. By placing the only units that can be 
effectively attacked by the Axis player on the road 
to Leningrad, the German player can often be 
lured into sending more units north than is war- 
ranted. This kind of "bait" is especially difficult 
for attrition-minded opponents to refuse. 



Second, the constricted nature of the terrain 
around Leningrad confers benefits on the 
defender; it is that much more difficult to 
engineer surrounded attacks, which in turn 
decreases the number of Russian casualties. 
Third, a determined defense increases the pos- 
sibility that Leningrad might survive as a Russian 
holding into 1942, If you choose to construct 
another non-A Vable defense in two lines to face 
the German in his Sept/Oct turn (with luck, using 
fewer units), then the Wehrmacht will not be able 
to attack the city itself until Nov/Dec when the 
snow may be falling. Besides the obvious advan- 
tage of keeping the city workers producing, sav- 
ing Leningrad may be justified by using it as a 
base from which to launch a counterattack against 
the poorly-supplied Germans (who will be 
without a base in the area if the city does not fall), 
vulnerable to parachute drops cutting retreats. 

On the southern flank, Sevastopol may ful- 
fill the same role, even if its lack of an initial 
Worker unit and the threat of invasions add a new 
dimemsion to your calculations. Therefore, if you 
can, hang onto Sevastopol too. 

July-August: 

For Russian players who suffer heavy losses 
in the opening turn (as was the case in the above 
example), continued sacrifice of territory in order 
to preserve units will probably be necessary on 
your second turn and some painful choices may 
have to be made. Even when running, however, 
the Russian still has the option of concentrating 
his resources on one sector of the front or the 
other. By this stage in many games, there may 
be three such sectors: 

Army Group North is advancing towards 
Leningrad. In essence you would hope to have 
four options: defend the approaches to the city 
to the teeth again, hoping to delay a direct 
German assault until Nov/Dec; defend the city 
itself; defend the city, with just enough in front 
of it to prevent the German player reaching it untd 
his Stuka-less 2nd impulse; flee, leaving the 
proletariat to show their mettle. While I try to 
hang onto Leningrad if possible, the second and 
third compromises have the disadvantage that one 
may lose both city and defenders, even though 
Leningrad would be continuing to operate as a 
diversion for at least another turn. 

The second "front" is AG South advancing 
through the Ukraine. Even when past the Pripet 
Marshes, the main front will effectively remain 
divided for another turn. Defending this region, 
once the Axis forces arc poised to menace most 
of the target cities, is very difficult. There are 
too many places to defend, and no good terrain 
in which to shelter. Even in games where the 
Russian has contested every step of the Axis 
advance, prolonged good weather at the end of 
1941 can result in heavy blows in the south as 
Kharkov and Stalino fall. In games such as the 
example cited above, the Soviets might be best 
advised to withdraw from the production cities, 
as to garrison them will only serve to increase 
Red Army casualties. Your units should be placed 
in positions out of Staka range and at the extreme 
tip of any potential German advance. 

The third front is advancing towards Moscow. 
Having left this region scantily defended the 
previous turn, the Russian will probably be forced 
to increase his commitment in order to face the 



Germans in Sept/Oct. Fortunately, he has two 
advantages: good terrain (forests, from which the 
defender cannot be forced to retreat, bar the path 
to Moscow) and the entry of part of the Sept/Oct 
reinforcements directly in Moscow (thus making 
an adequate defense easier to arrange, and even 
conferring a limited ability to counterattack). 

A Summary of Summer 1941: 

A few basic ideas, then, for the Russian player 
to consider in the opening moves of RUSSIAN 
CAMPAIGN: 

1. The Soviet side can often achieve more by 
a judicious switching of resources from one sector 
of the front to another than by merely adopting 
the same type of defense from the Black Sea to 
the Baltic. 

2. Make use of ' 'diversions" that may side- 
track German resources from the main front, and 
bear in mind that it can often be worth sacrific- 
ing a few units as bait to lure the German into 
attacking along the axis you wish him to go. 

3. Bear in mind that in 1941 the front line 
will divide into several distinct sectors, each with 
its own distinctive strategic geography, vitally 
affecting your defensive plans. 

4. Remember that, despite his apparently 
overwhelming resources, the German player is 
under pressure too, and will frequently not be 
able to accomplish all he might wish. 

This last point is relevant to the Russian 
defense throughtout the game. Most players, 
when planning their defense against the next turn 
of a blitzkrieg, will make a "worst case" assump- 
tion for each area of their front line. Their posi- 
tions will be based on the foreseen possibility that 
the enemy will concentrate all of his available 
resources on that area. Tactically speaking, this 
is perhaps the best way of approaching the 
problem; but strategically, it should be borne 
in mind that the German's resources are not 
unlimited and that he will never be able to do 
maximum damage all the way along your line. 

THE WINTER COUNTER-OFFENSIVE 

As was historically the case, the onset of the 
winter snows not only halts the German advance, 
but also hands the strategic initiative to the 
Russian player, who now has a brief chance to 
attack before the pendulum swings back in the op- 
position's favor with the coming of spring. The 
advantages of launching some sort of Russian 
counterattack during this period, both material 
and psychological, are agreed upon by many. The 
question is how to go about conducting the attack, 

A standard method of using this opportunity 
is to wait until the Soviet turn in Nov/Dec, and 
then unleash the main effort, secure in the 
knowledge that snow the following turn will emas- 
culate any Axis riposte. Jan/Feb 1942 can then 
be used for rest and recuperation, ordering the 
Soviet defensive lines for the spring onslaught, 
and withdrawing your precious mobile (i.e., two- 
impulse) units from the front line, But this strikes 
me as an unnecessarily timid and restrictive 
course. In some games, the opportunity will be 
there to gready expand this counter-offensive. For 
a start, the Russian player should be thinking 
about what he might do in his own Sept/Oct turn, 
for two reasons. 

Preparation. It is difficult to launch effective 



10 




strikes in the Nov/Dec turn without having 
substantial forces in the chosen area already. 
Admittedly, in the Moscow region especially, the 
Russian can rapidly increase his strength (aided 
by forces entering directly on the city) and can 
launch a credible counterattack from an appar- 
ently weak starting position. Elsewhere, however, 
this is not usually possible, and units near at hand 
at the beginning of the Nov/Dec turn will be 
needed if an effective assault is to be made. This 
is because the Soviet mobile forces will (in most 
parts of the front) only arrive in the desired area 
in Nov/Dec by rai!. Because the non-mobile Rus- 
sian forces are so ponderous, you will need to give 
some thought to possible Nov/Dec counterattacks 
one turn in advance, since you need your infan- 
try available to absorb losses, increase odds and 



guard flanks. In addition, of course, you may wish 
to move STAVKA into a threatening position. 
Opportunity. A counterattack in the Sept/Oct 
turn? A recipe for being cut to pieces by the 
Germans, surely. Obviously any attack by the Rus- 
sian player at this stage is risky, and there will 
be many games where it is not possible or advis- 
able. Any forces used in striking back this early 
will probably be in poor defensive positions. 
Moreover, the scarce Soviet armor must be well 
to the fore for you to have any chance of succeed- 
ing, and as a result it will be vulnerable. However, 
if units can be spared from your line and the op- 
portunity is there, it is often worth gambling with 
a local counterattack. There is, after all, a two- 
in-three chance that the weather will be poor 
enough to severly hamper the German in his next 



turn (Snow or Mud). 

During the winter offensive, there are essen- 
tially two types of attack the Russian player might 
launch: a counterattack to take a position (such 
as the woods in front of Moscow or a specific 
city), or a counterattack to destroy as many Axis 
units as possible. In Sept/Oct, shortage of strength 
makes the first the more likely proposition for the 
Russian. Retaking a city in Sept/Oct has the added 
advantage that, if the weather is bad the follow- 
ing turn, and the German fails to re-retake it, he 
will be starting 1942 that much further back, gain- 
ing the Soviet player some precious time. Of 
course, priorities must be borne in mind, and if 
critical Russian positions are threatened, then 
their defense is the Russian's first concern in 
Sept/Oct. 

November to February; 

A conventional timetable for these two turns 
has already been outlined above: a charge in 
Nov/Dec, followed by the recall in Jan/Feb. 
However, the Russian may well be advised to use 
all four months for offensive action. 

There is support for the idea of continuing the 
Russian counter-offensive into 1942, as was the 
course the actual campaign took. Following the 
successful attack in front of Moscow which began 
on 5 December, on 5 January Stalin ordered a 
general offensive which continued on into the 
next month. Even during the spring thaw, Russian 
forces were attacking in the Crimea, and resumed 
the offensive in May south of Kharkov. There 
were two errors made by STAVKA during this 
period. First, they attacked in too many places 
at once; Zhukov warned of this, wanting the 
offensive concentrated in the Moscow region. 
Second, they carried on too long; Timoshenko's 
attempted drive out of the Izyum salient in May 
brought a devastating German riposte. Concen- 
tration of force is mandatory in this game if the 
Russian player is to achieve anything with his 
winter offensive; you have the resources for only 
one major effort. As for the second pitfall, what 
I suggest is only continuing your counterattack 
into the Jan/Feb mm. 

Nevertheless, there are some potent objections 
to this plan, and they need mentioning. 

Should good weather return in March/April 
1942, the German offensive will resume immedi- 
ately. Russian attackers from the turn before, in- 
cluding perforce many valuable mobile units, will 
be massacred as a defense dislocated by two turns 
of offensive action is cut to ribbons. But this fear 
is, I think, easily exaggerated. There is a one- 
in-three chance that the weather in March/ April 
will be such (Mud or Snow) that the German 
player will be unable to do much. It would be 
short-sighted to count on this, but even given 
better weather the enemy can be faced with a 
passable Russian defense. By the second impulse 
of his Jan/Feb mm, the Russian player should 
be in position to deliver a potentially crippling 
blow to the Axis (if not, why attack). Consider 
such an attack, delivered as it frequendy is at 1-1 
surrounded. If you are "victorious" (an "EX" 
or "DR"), then German counterattack capability 
in that sector should be impaired. If you fail 
("Al" or "A2"), the mostly mobile attackers 
can be retreated into less vulnerable second-line 
positions. There is, of course, a one-sixth chance 
of a "Contact". This is bad news for you indeed, 



11 



Having stated, in commenting upon the 
set-up, that potential Russian pockets in the 
military districts will face supply problems, 
Lvov may prove to be the exception. A com- 
parison of Richard Javinen's original Viipuri 
Defense in the Kiev district (Figure A) with 
one of the defenses later suggested by Paul 
Jameson (Figure B) shows an increasing 
preoccupation with strengthening the Molda- 
vian intersection of the Kiev and Odessa dis- 
tricts while cutting back on the forces 
deployed in the northern part of the former. 
North of hex row U, the drop off is from 20 
factors and five units to 1 3 factors and three 
units. The worthy objective of this shift in 
emphasis was to prevent the "pocketing" of 
the Kiev forces, preserve the Bug line (which 
many of the units can the man), while still 
keeping enough force in the north to prevent 
the Germans overrunning the defenders and 
using the mountain corps to trap the southern 
wing. 

In general, the thinking behind both these 
defenses is sound; but this should not rule out 
consideration of an alternative strategy. As my 
suggestion for one such, see Figure C. This 
allows (indeed, invites) the German to pocket 
the Kiev district units and break across the 
Bug. Using such a defense means that, of 
Russian possibilities, you will be using ter- 



• THE LVOV a 

ALTERNATIVES 



ritory rather than manpower to defend south 
of the Pripet Marshes next turn. 

The Axis player has, basically, three 
choices when faced with my "Lvov Alter- 
native": 

1. Assault frontaliy with AG South 
towards the southeast. Most of the Kiev units 
will die, but in comparison the German units 
used in the north of the district (i.e., the bulk 
of the army group) will be badly out of posi- 
tion for the next few turns. Regardless of what 
the Red Army does, bad weather could leave 
the Axis position in the Ukraine looking very 
unimpressive at the end of the year. 

2. Pocket the Kiev Military District. 
Basing most of AG South in Rumania is a pre- 
requisite. The German advance in the 
Urkrairje will probably be very rapid, but 
units used to crush the defenders of Lvov in 
subsequent turns will be even more badly 
positioned than was the case above. This in 
turn weakens the German player where it 
matters most— in the spearheads of his 
advance. 



3. Compromise. Enough units assault 
frontaliy to take Lvov, while substantial forces 
advance from Rumania ensuring the the 
pocket is completed. This course of action 
offers the German player the possibility of the 
best of both worlds; rapid advance in reason- 
able strength and the elimination of trapped 
Kiev units due to lack of supply (with the 
bonus of fewer of his own units in poor posi- 
tion afterward). However, like most com- 
promises, he may instead face the worst of 
both: a Russian with sufficient strength to 
retake the city immediately, for example. 



Any pocket in Lvov surviving the first turn 
must be eliminated by the Axis in their July/ 
Aug 1941 move; otherwise they risk its con- 
tinued existence astride their main line of com- 
munications and supply in the south for some 
time. The only game I have ever witnessed 
where the Russian won despite losing Moscow 
in 1941 was one where the Lvov pocket sur- 
vived. Reluctant to turn back his spearheads, 
the German player found his efforts vitiated 
in the south and the drain merely to contain 
the Lvov pocket sabotaged his 1942 offensive. 
Your opponent may not be so charitable, but 
dealing with a Lvov pocket during his second 
turn will itself bring you benefits. 



Figure As Kiev Military District, Jarvinen (Vol. 13, No. 6) 



Figure B: Kiev Military District, Jameson (Vol. 16, No. 5) 



Figure Ct The Lvov Alternative for the Kiev Military District 







12 

although there is still a one-sixth chance of snow 
next turn. Even in this instance, however, a 
Russian player who has allowed for this pos- 
sibility should be able to avoid the most danger- 
ous types of weaknesses {like leaving only one 
defensive line between the enemy and an impor- 
tant objective). The risk is there, but risk-free op- 
tions rarely yield much. 

Another oft-heard objection is that greater 
casualties may result when every factor is needed 
to face the Germans in the coming summer turns. 
It is true that it would be foolish to persist with 
a strategy that circumstances dictate should be 
abandoned. If your 1941 losses have been heavy, 
or the Nov/Dec rum ends with all your 1-1 at- 
tacks repulsed with "AI" and all the soak-off 
units eliminated, then it is obviously time to stop 
the counterattack. But, if the blood-letting has not 
been too one-sided, continue on. Attrition, even 
if not exactly equal, will harm the German more 
than the Russian given the former's slower 
replacement rate. The most important consider- 
ation to bear in mind is that if the Russian offen- 
sive fails, you should not have suffered too much 
damage. But if it succeeds this early in the game, 
it may be a winner with the German player never 
able to wholly replace his lost units and there- 
fore not having the momentum he needs in 1942. 

Another objection to a Jan/Feb continuation, 
that there is a lack of suitable targets, seems 
specious. Russian counterattack objectives are 
usually obvious, with priority going to cities that 
can be retaken or German units vulnerable to sur- 
rounded attacks. On the other hand, there will 
be the occasional game where the German retreats 
into well-organized laagers around his cities, with 
every possible drop zone "para-proofed". The 
only way to attack such defensive hedgehogs is 
by frontal assault, and most players balk at that 
prospect, preferring to remain passive rather than 
risk expensive failures. However, even these 
frontal assaults can lead to success, especially if 
they are prosecuted into the Jan/Feb turn. For 
this sort of attack, there are three considerations 
(though they are not essentials): that a minor city 
is the combat supply source; that the hedgehog 
can be flanked; that German reinforcements can 
be excluded. 

A Note on Finland: 

A frontal assault, and indeed most any worth- 
while Russian winteT offensive, will require the 
concentration of practically all the offensive force 
the Russian can muster. Occasionally, though, 
the opportunity will be there to institute a lesser 
attack at the same time. Finland, especially, can 
offer some interesting possibilities. 

The situation where this is feasible is one in 
which Leningrad has survived, and the Finns 
have been attacking its northern defenses at 
relatively low odds in an attempt to exert extra 
pressure on your defenders {and have accordingly 
suffered some losses). In these circumstances, an 
attack on the isolated Finns with the object of 
driving them out of the game may be worthwhile. 

Figure 2 shows a Soviet Nov/Dec offensive 
against the weakened Finns. It is unlikely that the 
Germans will have a unit in port ready to help 
their allies, so the Finns are on their own. With 
Helsinki in paradrop radius to create some extra 
"leverage", there is now a chance that Finland 
can be knocked out of the game by continued 



effort in the next turn. However, a serious draw- 
back to an offensive such as this is that, if the 
German player manages to take Leningrad in his 
March/ April turn, the valuable units used in 
Finland will be effectively cut off. This the 
Russian cannot afford. Therefore, such attacks 
are probably best linked to a drive along the 
southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. 

General Points for Winter 1941-42: 

While the main Russian attack is being pre- 
pared and launched, an offensive spirit should be 
apparent along the remainder of the front. 
Threaten everywhere. Although a certain amount 
of concentration early behind the planned main 
counterblow is inevitable the Russian should, to 
the best of his ability, appear to threaten as much 
as possible. For example, bring cavalry units up 
into positions where they could penetrate gaps 
in the German front, between hedgehogs. This 
is usually most profitable in Nov/Dec, enabling 
the Red Army to then pull back into good defen- 
sive positions the following turn after the enemy 
reacts. Should any "golden" opportunities 
present themselves as a result of the enemy re- 
action, then you will be in a position already to 
exploit. 

Do not risk STAVKA. The HQ is, of course, 
very useful as a threat in its own right (even as 
early as Sept/Oct). But it is worth bearing in mind 
that the Russian paratroop drop is probably more 
effective as a threat than in execution. 

If possible, allow the German no territorial 
gains further than his combat supply can reach. 
German units in this position are targets for a 
winter offensive, even if there is no snow in the 
last mm of 1941, since they would be forced to 
retreat the following mm. In addition to this, 
however, the German should be allowed no hexes 
by default. When the German offensive starts, 
every hex may prove useful to you, Germans with 
halved strength when threatened (see the first 
general point above) may well scuttle back to the 
safety of a city anyway, and thus you may avoid 
the necessity of launching an actual attack. 

SUMMER 1942-FALL BLAU 

With the return of better weather in the spring, 
the German player will resume the general offen- 
sive he left off in late 1941 (historically, Opera- 
tion "Blau"). Perhaps the best way to approach 
a discussion of the game at this point is to review 
the respective starting positions of the two sides. 
The following table is intended to give some in- 
dication of the number of combat factors each 
player might expect to have at their disposal in 
the March/ April 1942 turn, plus some figures for 
comparison: 

Russian German 

At Start (May 1941) 130 202 

Fall Blau Scenario (maximum) 171 200 

Fall Blau Scenario (minimum) 140 200 

Jarvinen (maximum) 197 — 

Jarvinen (minimum) 154 — 

Sample Game (maximum) 180 221 

Sample Game (minimum) 154 184 

Maximum Possible 269 244 

Additions in March/ April c.36 c.25-30 (Clear) 

The "Fall Blau" figures are taken from the 
scenario of that name, projected back one turn 
from the actual May/June start date. The mini- 
mum and maximum figures assume that the 
players pick the worst and best OBs, respectively, 



from the available armies. The "Jarvinen" 
figures are taken from his excellent article in Vol. 
14, No. 3. The "Sample Game" figures are 
drawn from my own most recent effort. 

These figures indicate that in a typical game, 
some 200 Axis combat factors will be facing 
about 160 Russian. This is an improvement on 
the "At Start" situation for the Soviets (besides 
the obvious 30 factors) for a number of reasons. 
The Russian army is qualitatively much better. 
Virtually every combat factor will be aiding the 
defense actively in some way (contrast this with 
the initial situation with 40 factors "behind" the 
lines in reserve). The German player will be 
suffering from the opposite as a result of his 
advance into Russia. Some units will have to be 
dropped off to mount anti -partisan guard in vital 
rail lines and garrison ports on the Black Sea. 
Of course, the German may choose to dispense 
with this kind of rear echelon. If so, this is 
probably good news for the Red Army, as the 
partisans will be able to block the flow of replace- 
ments and reinforcements to whole sectors of the 
front. Assuming that your German opponent does 
in fact leave some rearguards, a conservative 
estimate of this strategic drain would be about 
15-20 combat factors. 

As to the relative territorial positions of the 
two armies, in a great many games this will not 
be too far different from the historical one as 
represented by the black dotted scenario start line 
(minus Kursk for the Russians, but plus 
Sevastopol and BB15/CC15 — the Izyum salient). 
Unless something outrageous has happened (such 
as four turns of clear weather in 1941 or a 
remarkably successful Russian winter offensive), 
the front line in spring 1942 will be determined 
by players' possession of a string of "debatable" 
cities: Sevastopol, Rostov, Kharkov, Stalino, 
Kursk. Bryansk, Smolensk and Leningrad. Yottt 
opponent will almost certainly hold some of these 
(if he has them all, your cause is not prosper- 
ing), but will rarely have advanced much beyond 
them. 

Relating all this to the historical course of 
events, the situation as the Axis offensive resumes 
in 1942 is very similar to the real one (especially 
in territorial terms). If the game is to take a dif- 
ferent tack from history and the German is to 
avoid the defeat his real -life counterparts 
suffered, this this will have to come about in 
1942. In many ways, this will be the crucial year 
for both players. 

Russian Defensive Assets: 

Another broad German offensive in 1942 is 
inevitable; nothing the Russian player can do, 
barring extremes of luck, can prevent it. How- 
ever, you have several advantages which, though 
not critical in and of themselves, can play their 
part in turning the tide. 

Diversions. Enough has already been said 
about the dilemma faced by the German in deal- 
ing with cities like Leningrad and Sevastopol that 
are off the main course of his advance and stra- 
tegically dead-ends. Such cities are also valua- 
ble in 1942. Consider the position in Figure 3. 
It is March/ April 1942 and the German player 
wants to get his panzer units back to the main 
front, but he also wants to take Leningrad— both 
quickly. However, although the Russian delay- 
ing unit is doomed, it is plausible that the German 



13 



may be unwilling to risk a second-impulse 1-2 
attack on the city itself {the best he can manage 
this turn). If the attempt to take Leningrad is 
delayed until May/June, with the forces shown 
here only a 1-2 attack is possible again (without 
a Stuka). One option for him would be to bring 
up sufficient forces for a second-impulse 1-1 , 
assuming that the partisans cannot interfere. 
Though such an attack may not immediately suc- 
ceed, repetition in following turns should lead to 
the city's eventual capture, However, if the two 
panzer units are to be relieved, the demands of 
AG North will eat into a substantial part of the 
German 1942 reinforcements. In this way, unless 
the Axis make no attempt to take the city at all, 
Leningrad will siphon off enemy strength and 
(possibly) airpower from decisive battles 
elsewhere. 

While on the subject of diversions, a German 
drive in the south from, say, Kharkov and Kursk 
on Voronezh, Saratov and Stalingrad may well 
be mounted with him merely masking Rostov. 
Later in the year, this can lead to Rostov assum- 
ing the same diversionary role. Indeed, the com- 
plexion of the campaign in the southern half of 
the mapboard in 1942 can hinge on whether the 
Germans have a secure hold on Rostov, whether 
or not they intend to proceed further south. 

Cutting German mobility, especially that of 
the panzer units, is a prime consideration. It is 
worth emphasizing that the strength of the Wchr- 
macht lies not just in its hitting power but in its 
mobility. For example, one effective way to cut 
down the maneuverability of the Axis armor is 
to ensure that, as the weather clears, the clear 
terrain passage between the woods at Rl 1/Q11 
and S13/S14 is blocked by ZOCs. This will make 
it difficult for panzer units based in Smolensk to 
operate south of Bryansk immediately, and may 
well result in their commitment to the north of 
Moscow at the extreme north of the main front. 
Here the threat they can pose will be far less than 
if they were more centrally positioned. Of course, 
the main determinator of whether the panzer units 
are well -placed is the German player himself. 
Given that they inevitably end up as spearheads 
of the main Axis thrusts, it follows that if he 
decides to attack on the flanks (from Rostov south 
and southwest, and in Kalinen sector), then he 
is helping to minimize one of his own important 
advantages. This is, naturally, essentially a 
German decision; but you can try forcing his hand 
by blocking the important clear terrain passage 
mentioned above. 

This can also be a factor in deciding where 
you might launch your own main effort in the 
preceding winter. A Russian attack on either of 
the two flanks may well attract more German 
units to that area. When the weather clears, 
aggressive Germans, reluctant to waste any time 
in coming to grips with the enemy, may commit 
these units to their immediate vicinity, rather than 
take the time shunting them to more advantageous 
positions. Every time you manage to restrict the 
German's choices, or force or lead him to act as 
you would wish, then this (even in small matters) 
is contributing to a Russian victory. 

Counterattacking in 1942: 

With the initiative firmly back in German 
hands, any Russian attacks during the good 
weather of 1942 are going to be but limited 



interludes. Given that every combat factor will 
be desperately needed, what case can be made 
for any sort of counterattack in this period? 

As has already been stressed, if the Russian 
player is playing to win (rather than merely 
draw), aggression in the first half of the game 
is necessary even though he is on the strategic 
defensive. If the Russian player remains passive 
until the Stukas disappear, he will likely find 
Berlin too far away to be reached by May /June 
1945. This reasoning applies to Russian attacks 
throughout the first half, but in the spring of 
1942, several fresh considerations come into 
being. 

First there is the need to preserve territory. 
In 1941, approximately half the Russian territory 
on the board will have been surrendered in most 
games. If this is repeated in 1942, you will have 
lost the match since your vital replacement 
capacity will have been decimated. Obviously the 
Germans will register some progress eastwards 
in 1942, but you will be obliged to put up a much 
stiffer resistance than during the preceding year. 
Some sort of limited offensive will help make this 
resistance that much more effective. 

Second point to keep in mind is the changed 
composition of your Red Army. As the second 
year of conflict progresses, the offensive poten- 
tial of the Soviet forces will increase. All the rein- 
forcements are now two-impulse units, while the 
front-line troops bearing the brunt of the losses 
will be mostly composed of foot infantry. It 
would be a waste of this increase in attack poten- 
tial to leave it unused. Consider the differences 
between the 6-3 rifle armies in the pre- 1942 
Russian OB and the four 6-5 tank armies you 
receive in 1942. In defense the two are indistin- 
guishable; but in attack, the latter's ability to 
move in both impulses can effectively double its 
combat factors. In effect, it can become a "12-7" 
while a 6-3 infantry unit remains just that — half 
as powerful. 

There are, as a rough guide, three different 
situations in which the Russian player might con- 
sider counterattacking during the good weather: 

1. The counterattack to preserve defensive 
positions. Obvious examples are the retaking of 
river lines, major cities and the woods in front 
of Moscow. These woods, and the complex of 
rivers in the same area, are probably the best 
defensive positions the Russian player has in 
1942, and are virtually the only place where the 
Soviets can confront the German assault and hope 
to cheat it of its objective. The woods give you 
the unique opportunity to hold positions against 
the Stukas and panzers, since if the defenders are 
stacked two -high, even at 5-1 odds there is only 
a 50% chance that the enemy will get through 
to the second echelon defenders in a single game 
turn. In addition, not having to retreat from such 
hexes means that the Russian stands a fair chance 
of hanging on to them throughout his own turn, 
even though this will entail low-odds attacks on 
neighboring Germans. 

To illustrate these factors, consider the situ- 
ation in Figure 4 showing the positions towards 
the end of the German May /June turn. Although 
some of the front-line defenders were eliminated 
in the first impulse, the centerpiece of the Ger- 
man attack was a Stuka-supported 5-1 assault on 
Ql 1 , defended by two 5 -3s. Only one was elimi- 
nated, forcing the Axis player to repeat the attack, 



destroying the second army. However, the net 
result is that the Germans may not have advanced 
at all this turn, since the Russian has the option 
to reoccupy Ql 1 if he so wishes. As this may be 
an expensive ploy (especially as the sequence may 
be repeated on subsequent turns), the Russian 
could content himself with merely rearranging 
his defenses one hex further back from the 
original front, centered now around Rll and 
Q10. With the pressure temporarily relieved in 
this sector, the Russian player has been given the 
opportunity to switch resources to another threat- 
ened area. (Indeed, this "switching" is an im- 
portant Russian tactic which will be examined in 
more detail later.) All in all, given that this is 
his major offensive in what might be one of only 
two Clear weather turns in 1942, this turn has 
hardly seen an impressive catalogue of German 
achievements. 

2. Taking the initiative in a quiet sector. As 
the German advances from his wintering sites, 
the front will inevitably lengthen, whether or not 
he mounts major operations south of the Don. 
This, together with the less favorable balance of 
forces, will mean that unlike 1941 the German 
will be forced to leave some areas of his front 
quiet. The possibility exists, therefore, for you 
to take the initiative in one of these areas. This 
might seem a profligate idea, feasible only when 
the Red Army is unusually strong. However, it 
can be generally useful, even in desperate cir- 
cumstances. 

Consider the following situation. It is the end 
of the German turn, July /Aug 1942. The defense 
in front of the main German attack in the south, 
along the Voronezh/Saratov axis, is crumbling 
badly. Knowing that any defense he puts up in 
the threatened area will be pulverized again next 
turn, the Russian seeks to divert resources from 
the enemy spearheads by creating a sudden crisis 
in his opponent's rear: two powerful units are 
held back to take Stalino from the Axis (a 4-4 
in FF11, 3-4 in GG13 and Rumanian 3-5 in 
GG15). A 6-5 and 4-3 (HH15) slam into the 
Rumanians, while Soviet 4-3s hold at HH10 and 
HH12. Another 6-5 is positioned in Rostov. With 
partisans making railed reinforcements from else- 
where problematic, and only scattered infantry 
and allied corps behind the spearheads and east 
of the Donets, AG South has a problem. Its flank 
has been turned, and two Russian tank armies 
might roam at will through the Don basin and 
the Western Ukraine. The Russian player is 
hoping, of course, that powerful German forces 
will be detached to crush his two offending units, 
thus emasculating the enemy's drive forward. 
Even if the German player elects to ignore the 
threat, some advantages accrue to the Soviets. 
Any Axis offensive to the south of Voronezh 
(e.g. , towards Stalingrad along the Don) will need 
substantial forces to guard its exposed western 
flank. 

3, Another counterattack possibility to con- 
sider is one mounted to stem an "inadequate" 
enemy offensive. The two Stukas possessed by 
the German in 1942 undoubtably give him the 
option to pursue two geographically separate 
thrusts. If these are coordinated, they can cause 
severe dislocation for the Russians. An example 
would be a pincer movement on Moscow from 
both north and south, or a drive on Stalingrad 



14 







Figure 5: End of the German May (June 1942 Tun 

coupled with one on Voronezh/Saratov. Fre- 
quently though, overambitious German players 
will mount attacks which diverge. This in itself 
has some strategic drawbacks for the Axis, giv- 
ing the enemy the opportunity to switch resources 
from one threatened sector to another in an imi- 
tation of the tactic used in 1941 . In addition, the 
"isolated" offensive can find itself weakened by 
the need to guard lengthening flanks and by the 
diversion of resources to another Axis offensive 
given greater priority. In reality, the German in 
1942 lacks the ability to mount two adequately- 
supported divergent thrusts (consider the histor- 
ical problems experienced in trying to maintain 
the momentum in both the Caucasus and Stalin- 
grad operations at the same time). 

When faced with a visibly secondary Axis 
push, pusillanimous defensive tactics should be 
abandoned. In Figure 5, it is May /June and the 
Germans are approaching Stalingrad, having 
breached the defensive line of the Don. The 
Russians, falling back before a German thrust 
through Tula for a turn, are able to thus spare 
some forces to confront the southern drive. In 
the first impulse, the Russians attack the German 
6-7 in DD8 at 3-1 and the forces in CCS at 2-1 
odds. The second impulse (shown in Figure 6) 
brings a 4-1 attack on the central 3-4, a 1-6 
soakoff against DD10 and a 1-2 against FF9. 
(This assumes that the first impulse was success- 
ful.) Although the Don line has not been restored, 
the front in this sector is now relatively secure 
with both Stalingrad and Saratov unlikely to be 



Figure 6: Russian Riposte 

taken with the Axis forces shown on the follow- 
ing turn. 

As with many such counterattacks, the defen- 
sive problems caused by failure will not be in the 
active sector (even if objectives are not reached) 
but in those parts of the front deprived of 
resources to mount the action in the first place. 
Be that as it may, in this example, the German 
AG South will have problems in the July/Aug 
turn, in addition to the irritation of losing nine 
factors to your two during the attack. The area 
is too far away from Moscow to receive immedi- 
ate aid from the German forces pressing towards 
that objective; any units transferred south would 
be forced to waste at least one invaluable turn 
in transit. However, without aid, the original 
German objective (Stalingrad) cannot be reached; 
indeed, the spearhead would be distinctly vulner- 
able if it was to stay in the positions shown. One 
alternative for the German would be to switch 
direction with it and aim at Saratov, where aid 
from elsewhere could be more easily deployed. 
But this too would mean that one turn's advance 
(in territorial terms) would be wasted by the Axis . 
Under severe time pressure as he is, the German 
can ill afford such strategic dithering. 

WINTER 1942/43- 
OPERATION URANUS 

By Sept/Oct 1942, after the German has 
moved, the Russian player will know what course 
the remainder of the game will follow (although 



this may be delayed one turn if the Nov/Dec 
weather is Clear or Light Mud). It may be that 
a German victory now looms, with the upcom- 
ing winter a mere hiatus in the unstoppable Axis 
advance. Alternatively, as history proved, it may 
be apparent that the German high-water mark has 
been reached and that, although the 1943 Stuka 
still gives the German a damaging offensive 
potential, he must eventually be forced to retreat 
back towards the Reich. Once the strategic 
balance has begun to shift in 77? C, the fortunes 
of the side on the wrong end of the see-saw 
normally deteriorate. This is the reason, in my 
experience, why games in which the front line 
remains in stasis until 1945 are relatively rare. 
Similarly, if the German has the balance in 
his favor at the end of 1942, it will be unusual 
for the Russian to hold out with diminishing 
resources for a draw. However, the converse is 
not necessarily true; if by this stage of the game, 
the Russian may know whether or not he will be 
able to capture the initiative and go over to a 
general offensive, he cannot be sure that he will 
perforce win. The German can still hope for a 
draw. It is the primary aim of the judicious use 
of Russian offensives during the first half of the 
match to increase the chance of ultimate victory. 
Presuming you have survived and the tide appears 
to be turning, Sept/Oct 1942 is the moment to 
begin the great Winter Offensive. 

The Second Winter Offensive: 

With the now more mobile forces at your dis- 
posal, the Russian player should be able to mount 
an even more effective blow than he could twelve 
months before and be able to threaten even more. 
Essentially the advice I have remains the same: 
start as early as feasible (i.e., in Sept/Oct) and 
consider prolonging the counterattacks into the 
new year if potential dividends make it 
worthwhile. 

Figure 7: Possible German Position at Voronezh, Jert/Feb ]943 




15 



Figure S: The Offensive Payoff 

Extensive German advances in 1942 make the 
possibility of a massive encirclement (ala Stalin- 
grad) much more likely than it was in 1941 , even 
discounting the improved quality of the Red 
Army. In 1941 the probable German winter bases 
(Rostov, Stalino, Kharkov, Kursk, Bryansk and 
Smolensk) could all lend their neighboring cities 
support. Assuming that a German defense of 
these bases would include both the cities and the 
surrounding hexes, it can be seen that there were 
few gaps in the Axis front line through which 
Russian units could infiltrate to threaten encir- 
clements. Having advanced beyond this line in 
the summer of 1942, however, the newly- 
acquired German depots (Krasnodar, Stalingrad, 
Voronezh, Tula and Kalinen) cannot readily sup- 
port one another (assuming that Moscow does not 
fall). 

The sort of thorny dilemma facing the Ger- 
man can be shown best by example; see Figure 
7. It is Jan/Feb 1943, following snow on the 
previous turn during which the Russian forces 
began to maneuver to encircle the city. With the 
German now to move, he would be risking 
another ' 'Stalingrad" if he were to try and hang 
on to Voronezh; from this position he will prob- 
ably pull back to Kursk. Without having directly 
assaulted the city, the Russian player will have 
succeeded in bloodlessly levering his opponent 
out. If the German stays, he risks losing his whole 
force to surrounded attacks (an instance where 
persistence in counterattacking even beyond the 
winter would be almost mandatory for the 
Russian). 

It might be supposed that the isolation of the 
most likely German wintering positions would be 
in part nullified by their improved combat sup- 
ply. However, the ability to trace such supply to 
units two hexes from friendly cities makes this 
an advantage more supposed than real. Such units 
are distinctly more vulnerable than their comrades 
closer to the supply city; they are deprived of 
combat supply if hexes connecting them to the 
city are put in Russian ZOCs (regardless of the 
presence of friendly units). Secondly, unless pos- 
sible Russian thrusts are confined to a limited area 
geographically, then the extended perimeter will 
have to be held virtually all the way around the 
city if the defense is to be effective. This would 
have been the case had the Germans tried to 
mount a defense in the example of Figure 7 — and 
would be true for most of their winter bases. The 
number of units required to establish such a 
"motti" would be prohibitive, especially given 
the lengthened front and German casualties. 

Spring and Summer 1943: 

With the prospect of defeat now banished and 
a second winter offensive behind them, the 
Russians might be forgiven for thinking that as 
the snow clears they can carry on with the drive 
on Berlin and Bucharest. After all, when the 
sweeping advance following Stalingrad finally 
halted in the spring mud, the German summer 
riposte at Kursk was feeble in its effects com- 
pared to previous German efforts. After Kursk, 
of course, the Axis rarely stopped retreating. 
Unfortunately, even in those games where a 
Russian defeat can be ruled out by this stage, 
there is a strong chance that the German can 




16 



recapture the strategic initiative when the weather 
clears and be able to mount some credible attacks. 
There are two reasons this is likely to be so. 

There is no guarantee that the historical 
debacle at Stalingrad will have been recreated in 
your game. Indeed, a competent German player 
would have to be unlucky to suffer similar losses. 
Using the "At Start" forces from the scenario 
set-ups, it emerges that in game terms in Nov/Dec 
1942 the Russians have 226 combat factors and 
the Germans 219; by May /June 1943, the respec- 
tive figures are 243 and 152 (the Russian totals 
are the average of highest and lowest possible). 
Though these numbers give some idea of the 
effects of the second winter counter-offensive, 
it is my general experience that both sides fall 
short of these figures—with the discrepancy being 
most marked for the Russian. In fact, should no 
"Stalingrad" have befallen the German player, 
given his substantial reinforcements and replace- 
ments in 1943, they may enter the May /June Cum 
with their army at a game-high total. 

The remaining Clear- weather Stuka is the 
other factor to be considered. This will still be 
a very potent threat, especially if the German 
HQs are placed so as to maximize the area where 
it can be deployed. It alone is sufficient in many 
instances to allow the German to recapture the 
initiative when Clear weather returns. Even in 
instances where two years of war in Russia have 
taken a heavy toll on the Wehrmacht, the Stuka 
can help the German disguise his essential weak- 
ness by allying with the greater mobility of Axis 
units to pose more possible threats all along the 
Russian front. This will in turn mean that the 
Russian must spend more time worrying about 
possible German attacks than conducting his own. 

However, these two factors, while they should 
imbue the Russian player with caution in the first 
half of 1943, should not stop the eventual Soviet 
offensive. Even if at a disadvantage in number 
of combat factors, once the Stuka disappears the 
superior Russian replacement rate will hand the 
initiative to you (especially as both sides will now 
only be able to launch relatively low-odds at- 
tacks). Such poor attacks have grave disadvan- 
tages for the German; the combat results 
themselves can lead to more casualties and there 
is a greater portend of a bad result leaving other 
forces stranded in a poor position (to be sur- 
rounded and eliminated by the Russians in their 
turn). With comparatively little in the way of rein- 
forcements from this time on, the German can 
ill afford any losses in contrast to the Russian with 
his now doubled replacement rate. 

It is worth emphasizing that holding the in- 
itiative (being the attacker) has important benefits 
highlighted by the two-impulse per turn move- 
ment system of RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN. The 
defender must deal with every possible threat, 
stretching his resources, during his own first 
move; the attacker is allowed to concentrate in 
his. This is obviously of additional importance 
in 1943, when both sides may be in rough 
balance. For the German however the initiative 
he may hold in early 1943 will be greater in its 
threat than execution, for one Stuka is far less 
powerful than two, nor is it as flexible. 

Possible Russian Errors: 

The period in TRC when the initiative should 
begin to swing decisively in favor of the Russians 



(from about Sept/Oct 1942 to Sept/Oct 1943) can 
be a tricky time for you to negotiate. A far-too- 
common mistake is to over-estimate Soviet 
strength and underestimate that of your opponent. 
This in turn leads to: 

1. Launching the Counter-Offensive too 
soon. At some stage during 1943, the Russian 
player should begin an attack designed to wrest 
the initiative permanendy from the German. Tim- 
ing such an attack can be difficult. To be effec- 
tive, mobile two-impulse units must be involved 
primarily; but this means exposing them to a pos- 
sibly devastating German counterattack. Despite 
the newly doubled replacement rate, the Guards 
and armor units will only slowly recuperate from 
heavy losses (at best, only two will re-appear each 
turn). A disaster early in 1943 might slow the 
Russian drive for months to come. So, despite 
the pressing time constraints, the Russian may 
be better served by biding his time for one more 
turn before sounding the charge. 

2, Failing to appreciate the need for a Good 
Defense. Any offensive action means the concen- 
tration of your resources in one sector to the detri- 
ment of others. Superior German mobility means 
that they can concentrate in large numbers vir- 
tually anywhere along the front line. This, it is 
true, is a problem with which you have been grap- 
pling since 194 1 ; but there is a danger that over- 
enthusiasm in the winter offensive and the feel- 
ing that defeat has been avoided might betray one 
into a disastrous over-confidence. More than once 
the Russian front has been ripped apart in the 
summer of 1943 because a player neglected the 
most basic of defensive techniques. It is a cardinal 
principle of continued Russian defense that, 
unless a sector is to be abandoned, the Red 
Army's resources must be reasonably evenly 
spread. This not only means a strong ' 'interlock- 
ing' ' defense in 1943 to face the Germans, but 
also that you not rely too much on railing new 
units in to plug the gaps. Further, now that he 
has the capability with his growing army, in 1943 
when the Russian cannot afford to cede territory 
anywhere, he needs to retain a counterattack 
capability almost everywhere. 

CONCLUSION 

Finally, the last remaining German offensive 
potential will be spent — with luck, no more suc- 
cessfully than the historic Zitadeile, Figure 8 
shows this point in an "average" game. It is the 
beginning of the German Sept/Oct 1943 turn. The 
weather is Light Mud. The Russians have just 
launched a successful riposte to a German attack 
in the Rostov area, and the Germans (without a 
Stuka now) are forced onto the strategic defen- 
sive. To reach this stage, the Russian player has 
been working since the beginning of the game, 
having suffered one naU-biting crisis after 
another. It is, however, worth the pyschological 
wear-'n-tear. The situation as shown here is, for 
the Russian, in my opinion one of the most satis- 
fying experiences in all of wargaming. 



^ 




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JUNE 7-8 
GAMECON III, Paramus, New Jersey 
Contact: William McCauley, The Game Master, 
Bergen Mall, Paramus, NJ 07652. (202) 843-3308. 

JUNE 28-30 
*M ASL EUROPE, Kaiserlautem, Germany. 
Contact: Mike Offutt, Bldg. 1 112, Apt. B, Vogel- 
weh, 6750 Kaiserlautem, Germany. 0631-50823. 
Note: While all competition will be ASL, open 
gaming of SL is welcomed. 

JUNE 30 
MADISON GAME DAY, Madison, Wisconsin 
Contact: Pegasus Games, 6640 Odana Road, Madi- 
son, WI 53719. (608) 833-4263. 

JULY 3-7 
ORIGINS '91, Baltimore, Maryland 
Contact: Wes Coates, P.O. Box 609, Randal Istown, 
MD 21133. 
Note: Still billed as The National Game Convention, 

AUGUST 2-4 
DIPCON XXIV, Toronto, Ontario 
Contact: Doug Acheson, Unit 5, Suite 330, 320 
Yonge Street, Barrie, Ontario, L4N 4C8, Canada. 
Note: The North American DIPLOMACY Cham- 
pionships, held for the first dine outside the United 
States. 

AUGUST 23-25 
AVALONCON I, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 
Contact: Don Greenwood, c/o TAHGC, 4517 
Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214. (301) 
254-9200. 

Note: Avalon Hill's convention devoted exclusively 
to tournaments in our line of games. For more 
details see elsewhere in this issue. 

AUGUST 30-SEPTEMBER 2 
PACIFICON '91, San Mateo, California 
Contact: Charles K. Wofford, PacifiCon '91, P.O. 
Box 2625, Fremont, CA 94536. 
Note: The premier event will, as in the past three 
years, be a 36-planc B-J 7. 

SEPTEMBER 13-15 
TACTICON '91, Denver, Colorado 
Contact: Heather Bamhorst, Denver Gamers 
Association, P.O. Box 440058, Aurora, CO 80044. 
(303) 680-7824. 

Note: Events include VHP, KM, DIP, ASL and 
B-17. 

OCTOBER 11-13 
ASL OCTOBERFEST VI, Youngstown, Ohio 
Contact: Bill Conner, P.O. Box 4114, Youngstown, 
OH 44515. (216) 797-9009. 
Note: Non-stop ASL. 

OCTOBER 12-13 
P.E.W. KHAN U-I, New Cumberland, Penn- 
sylvania 

Contact: M. Foner, Games Only Emporium, 200 
Third Street, New Cumberland, PA 17070. (717) 
774-6676. 
Note: Guest-of-honor to be S. Craig Taylor. 

NOVEMBER 15-17 
COWBOY CON n, Stillwater. Oklahoma 
Contact: Michael Lyons, The Cowboy Campaigners 
Club, O40 Student Union, Box 1 10, Oklahoma Slat 
University, Stillwater, OK 74078. (405) 372-9448. 



17 



TO THE GATES 

The Historical RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 

By Robert B. Allred and Robert E. Allred 



Robert Brad Allred is one of the first gen- 
eration of wargamers , entering the hobby dur- 
ing the '60s to which most of us trace our Avalon 
Hill roots. His son, Robert Earl Allred, surely 
owes his interest in the hobby to his father's in- 
fluence. Together, they prove a rare example of 
the best method for curbing the "greying of the 
hobby ' ' we hear so much about — the invaluable 
opportunity of a parent to pass along his love and 
understanding of war gaming to his (or her) 
children. 

War games are more than just recreational 
activities; they also serve to illustrate— and even, 
to a certain extent, recreate — a historical situa- 
tion and impart the lessons to be learned by 
students of military science and history. One of 
the primary reasons the elder author of this piece 
became interested in Avalon Hill wargames was 
to learn something of the actual conditions and 
development of the situation as it affected such 
varied clashes as Gettysburg, D-Day and the 
Batde of the Bulge; the younger has taken tip the 
tradition by becoming involved in board war- 
gaming during its current, much more sophisti- 
cated, phase. We will together attempt to throw 
some light onto the historical situation as it 
pertains to the opening moves for Avalon Hill's 
excellent simulation THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN. 

The broad facts of the launching of Opera- 
tion Barbarossa are well known: the three million 
German and allied Axis troops attacked the two 
million troops of the Soviet Union. The gigantic 
offensive opened at 3:45 AM on 22 June 1941 
—about six weeks late (which was indeed six 
weeks too late). What the following will illus- 
trate, for those interested in simulation of the 
historical opening moves of the attack through 
the medium of TRC, are not only the failure to 
effectively use superior forces on the part of the 
Axis, but also that, contrary to popular belief, 
the Soviet Army did in fact manage to extricate 
most of its formations and maintain a somewhat 
continuous Front, anchoring its flanks along the 
coasts and in the Pripyet Marshes of western 
Russia, Poland and the Ukraine. These feats were 
accomplished in spite of the loss of almost a 
million men in two pockets around Minsk and 
Smolensk alone, and in spite of the repeated 
breaching and overrunning of parts of the front 
by the Wehrmacht. Stalin and STAVKA made full 
use of that staunch tenacity and stubborness which 
has allowed the peoples of the 15 Soviet repub- 
lics and the "autonomous" regions of the USSR 
to endure and persevere— not only through the 
terrible war during the campaign, but through 
more than seven decades of communism. 

Our description of the beginning of Barbarossa 
will rely on the historical set-up and campaign 
rules of THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN, and hope 
to also show that any winning strategy for the 
Axis player will in fact encompass die OKH 
(Oberkommando des Heeres) plan for the destruc- 
tion of the Red Army. Of course. Axis players 
of the game are blessed by being able to avoid 
Hitler's catastrophic interference which, despite 



intuitive insights and strokes of genius, became 
a "strategy" of defeat. We will carry the action 
through the third Axis turn. Consider this a sort 
of "historical" Series Replay, with critique. 

Getting down to the actual playing out of the 
campaign, readers should turn to the accompany- 
ing unit positions (see sidebar). The historical 
Soviet set-up depicts the placement of Soviet 
forces to guard the Motherland, which was too 
far forward— but did provide for some defense 
in depth along the northern half of the front, and 
which was rather solidly in place along the 
southern half of the front (but without any depth 
in that lengthy sector). As for the initial Axis turn, 
it clearly shows that the fortunes of war were 
rather generous to both sides. The Soviets could 
have been more severely mauled, and the attackers 
did not suffer as many casualties as they might 
as they crossed the Russian borders and reduced 
its defenses. 

In the first impulse of the first turn of our 
historical "simulation", the Soviets are driven 
back toward Archangel in the extreme north, but 
managed to hold off the Finns from any initial 
advance toward Leningrad. Army Group (AG) 
North, with Stuka support, pushes back the Soviet 
infantry armies. AG Center destroys the 10th 
Army and, with the aid of Stukas, the 3rd Cavalry 
Corps; it also forces the 3rd Army and the 4th 
and 5th Mechanized corps to retreat. AG South 's 
52nd Panzergrenadiers are beaten off in their 
thrust against the Soviet 3rd Mechanized Corps, 
but the 6th Army is destroyed in a combined 
attack by Axis mountain, infantry and panzer 
formations. AG South infantry units— backed by 
Stukas— force the 5th Army to abandon its posi- 
tion. The armies of the Rumanian Group attack 
without the benefit of Stuka support, and the 4th 
Infantry and Rumanian Cavalry corps are beaten 
back in their attack against the Soviet 9th Army. 
But the Soviets lose the 12th Mechanized in the 
south, and the 4th and 5th Cavalry corps must 
withdraw. 

The Axis offensive gains momentum in the 
second impulse, even though the Finnish drive 
on Leningrad stalls when their 2nd and 4th corps 
are forced back. AG North destroys the Soviet 
1st Mechanized, and forces the 7th Mechanized 
out of the way. AG Center's 5th and 6th Infan- 
try corps make "contact" with the 11th 
Mechanized, and the 8th is forced back to the 
same position as the 7th Mechanized. The 6th 
Cavalry is eliminated, but the lucky 5th 
Mechanized survives a 9-1 strike and retreats. 
Panzer corps strike at the Soviet 4th Army, but 
a "DR" result against a woods position renders 
a "Contact". AG South fares much the better, 
as the Soviet 5th Army must retreat and the 3rd 
Mechanized surrenders. Other AG South and 
Rumanian corps advance and spread out, and the 
headquarters move forward. 

The Soviet turn sees them withdrawing in 
good order, with railed-in units filling the gaps 
in the line. Thus we can see— and contrary to 
popular wargaming myth — the Soviets are main- 



taining a stable front, covering their flanks, and 
even counterattacking the Axis spearheads. The 
latter action (using our benefit of hindsight, of 
course) was more reckless than unwise, but only 
because we can sec what the Soviets could not 
at the time— that the Axis armies were simply too 
strong to throw off balance by mobile counter- 
thrusts. The results of these disastrous attacks 
were predictable: the elimination of the 4th, 5th, 
7th and 1 1th Mechanized corps and the retreat 
of the 4th Army. The catastrophic results under- 
scored the inadequacy of Soviet tactics and equip- 
ment during the early stages of the war (but that's 
the subject for another game system). In the 
second impulse, the Soviet player manages to 
throw away the 6th, 8th and 9th Mechanized 
corps in more futile counterattacks. But he has 
also thinly maintained his front in the north and 
center, while extricating the Kiev covering force 
from the border area and holding the extreme 
flanks along the coasts (after filling in some major 
gaps in the southern half of the front). 

In the second turn, the Axis offensive gathers 
speed as the steamroller continues to pulverize 
the Soviet front. This rum's moves demonstrate 
the strength of the Axis formations and position- 
ing, and the "correctness" of OKH's strategy 
thus far. Shown for all is the effectiveness of an 
attack at overwhelming odds, forcing the de- 
fender to surrender and negating his zones of con- 
trol (ZOC) so that other Axis units can move 
through unimpeded. AG Center's 5th, 6th, 7th, 
9th, 13th, 20th, 42nd and 43rd corps, with Stuka 
support, annihilate the Soviet 3rd Army in an 
"automatic victory" that allows the unhindered 
movement of other Axis units. AG Center's 
panzer corps go on to destroy the Soviet 4th and 
13th armies; and the 21st Army is forced back. 

In other action, the Finns arc able to eliminate 
the Soviet 7th and 23rd armies, but suffer the loss 
of their own 2nd and 7th corps. AG North 
destroys the 8th and 1 1th armies (the latter attack 
with Stuka support), but loses the 2nd and 38th 
corps. AG South's 48th Panzer Corps receives 
air support to eliminate the Soviet 5th cavalry. 
Combined infantry and mountain units, along 
with the Rumanian mountain corps, gather to 
overwhelm the 26th Army, but the German 4th 
Corps is lost in the "exchange". The Rumanian 
Group's 1 1th and 30th corps and the Rumanian 
Army's 2nd PG Corps unite to eliminate the 12th 
Army. 

So, as the situation has developed, the Finns 
have knocked out the entire Soviet border force 
there, AG North has sliced through the Baltic 
Military District, Group Center has swept over 
the Western Military District (and forced the 
surrender of the 3rd Army), AG South has 
reduced the Kiev Military District's forces to one 
infantry army and one light armored corps, and 
the Rumanian force has knocked out the Odessa 
Military District's armor. The Minsk and Lenin- 
grad garrisons are depleted, and the roads to 
Leningrad and Moscow are wide open, with only 
relatively minor stumbling blocks in the way 



18 



As the second impulse of the second Axis turn 
unfolds, the situation rapidly deteriorates for the 
Soviets in the north, but the Axis drive falters 
in the south, AG North's 1st and 10th corps attack 
the Soviet 27th Army; the Soviet unit and the I Oth 
Corps are eliminated in the "exchange". North's 
26th Corps, 41st and 56th Panzer corps attack 
and destroy the 10th Mechanized, with the loss 
of the 26th in another "exchange". AG Center's 
24th and 47th Panzer corps attack and eiminate 
the 21st Army. 

AG South's 17th, 29th, 55th corps and 48th 
Panzer all attack the 5th Army, pushing it back. 
The 3rd and 14th Panzer corps attack the 1st 
Cavalry, but the 3rd is lost in the "exchange" 
{the result of cumulative tank losses thus far I 
guess). The 52nd PanzerGrenadier Corps moved 
one hex beyond the legal maximum (an error not 
noticed at the time of this first game) to assist 
the Rumanian 2nd PG Corps in an attack on the 
Soviet 2nd Mechanized. The Rumanian panzer- 
grenadiers were sacrificed in the "exchange". 
The Rumanian Group's 1 1th and 30th move into 
"contact" with the 18th Army. The 54th Corps 
and 40th Panzer Corps force the 9th Army to 
retreat. 

By now it should be no surprise that the high 
command of the Wehrmacht was elated; it would 
take another five months before their hopes of 
a victory in 1941 were to be dashed. As for the 
Soviet side, virtually all of the mechanized corps 
had been thrown away in futile counterattacks 
against Axis formations that were just too power- 
ful to knock back. As far as our simulation is con- 
cerned (some isolated and far-flung armies are 
not represented), the Soviet forces have been 
reduced to five regular armies and but two 
cavalry corps. However, the prodigious Soviet 
replacement capacity now comes into play. But 
prior to that moment— the arrival of literally 
hordes of fresh Red Army troops— it is time for 
the Axis player to savor the view of a mapboard 
that is practically denuded of Soviet counters. It 
is easy to see why most of the world leaders at 
the time had just about written-off the Soviet 
Union as a viable member of the anti-Axis 
alliance. 

Now, for the Soviet second turn. On the first 
impulse, the arriving replacements include the 
27th Army at Leningrad, the 20th and 21st armies 
and 3rd and 5th Cavalry corps at Moscow. The 
16th Army arrives from the east, by railroads vis 
Saratov to the front. The 3rd and 5th Cavalry 
corps likewise are railed to the almost non- 
existent front lines, as are the 20th and 21st 
armies. On the Leningrad front the 7th Army 
moves out of the city. Elsewhere the 4th cavalry 
Corps and the 9th, 18th and 22nd armies reposi- 
tion themselves. The sole Soviet counterattack 
this time is the 5th Army's strike against the 
exposed 52nd PG Corps, which results in a 
"Contact". 

The second impulse sees the 24th Army arrive 
at Moscow and the 40th Army at Kursk. The 5th 
Army's push against the 52nd results in an offen- 
sive retreat. Thus we see that — again contrary to 
popular belief— Stalin and STAVKA have been 
able (if just barely) to re-establish the front in 
August 1941. The central sector, from Bryansk 
to Kiev, was the least insecure; but the extreme 
south, and the areas in front of Leningrad and 
Moscow were in desperately weak condition. 



The Historical RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 

Set-Up and Movement; 

Historical Set-up for the Red Army: 

Odessa Military District— 9th Army (CC25); 4th Cavalry (AA25); 12th Mechanized (Y25). 

Kiev Military District— 5th Cavalry (W25); 12th Army (V26); 26th Army (T27); 3rd 

Mechanized (S26); 6th Army (R26); 5th Army (Q24). 
Western Military District— 3rd Cavalry (P23); 4th Army (022); 4th Mechanized (022); 6th 

Cavalry (M21); 5th Mechanized (M22); 10th Army (L23); 8th Mechanized (K21); 11th 

Mechanized (K20); 3rd Army (J22). 
Baltic Military District— I lth Army (120); 7th Mechanized (119); 8th Army (G19); 1st 

Mechanized (G18). 
Finnish Border— 7th Army (B7); 23rd Army (C10). 

The remaining garrisons and reserves are deployed as per the listings on the "Russian OB 
Chart" found in the game. 

Historical Set-up For the Axis Armies: 

Finland-4th Corps (All); 2nd Corps (A 10); 7th Corps (A9); 6th Corps (A8). 

Rumania— Rumanian Cavalry Corps (DD27); Rumanian 4th Corps (BB27); Rumanian 1st 

Mountain and 2nd PG corps (X27); 11th, 30th and 54th corps (Z27). 
AG South— 49th Mountain Corps (R28); 52nd PG Corps (Q27); AG South HQ (P28); 4th 

and 44th corps (P27); 3rd Panzer, 14th Panzer and 48th Panzer corps (P26); 17th, 29th 

and 55th corps (025). 
AG Center — 46th Panzer and 12th corps (024); 24th Panzer and 47th Panzer corps (N24); 

13th and 43rd corps (M24); 7th and 9th corps (L25); AG Center HQ, Italian 3rd Corps 

and 53rd Corps (L26); 8th, 20th and 42nd corps (J24); 39th Panzer and 57th Panzer corps 

(123). 
AG North— AG North HQ, 26th, 28th and 38th corps (H23); 41st Panzer and 56th Panzer 

corps (H22); 1st, 2nd and 10th corps (G21). 

Hitler is in Berlin. 

Axis Turn §1, First Impulse: 
Movement: 

Unit 

Finn 4th 
Finn 2nd 
Finn 6lh 
Finn 7th 
26th Corps 
28th Corps 
38th Corps 
41st Panzer 
1st Corps 
2nd Corps 
10th Corps 
46th Panzer 
12th Corps 
24th Panzer 
47th Panzer 
13th Corps 
43rd Corps 
7th Corps 
9th Corps 
39th Panzer 
57th Panzer 
Italian 3rd 
53rd Corps 



■ 

3 



To Hex: 

B10 

C9 

A7 

B8 

121 

121 

121 

H21 

G20 

G20 

G20 

023 

023 

N23 

N23 

M23 

M23 

L24 

L24 

K23 

K23 

N24 

J24 



Combat: 
Attackers 

Finn 6th & 7th 
Finn 2nd & 4th 
26th, 38th. 43 st & 

56th Panzer 
1st, 2nd & 10th 

(with Stuka) 
46th Panzer & 12th 

(with Stuka) 
24th & 47th Panzer 



Defenders 

7th Army 
23 rd Army 
1 lth Army 

8th Army 

4th Army & 
3rd Cav 
4th Mech 



Unit 


To Hex: 


8th Corps 
20th Corps 


J23 
J23 


42nd Corps 
5th Corps 


J23 
122 


6th Corps 
52nd PG 


122 
R27 


49th Mt. 
4th Corps 


R27 
Q26 


44th Corps 
3rd Panzer 


Q26 
Q25 


14th Panzer 
48th Panzer 


Q25 
Q25 


17th Corps 
29th Corps 


P25 
P25 


55th Corps 
Rum Cavalry 


P25 
DD26 


Rum 4th 
11th Corps 


BB26 
Z26 


30th Corps 
54th Corps 


Z26 
Z26 


Rum 1st Mt. 
Rum 2nd PG 


X26 
X26 


Odds Result 


1-1 DR (to B5) 




1-2 C 


4-1 DR (to 118) 





5-1 DR (to G17) 

3-1 Dl (3rd Cav elim) 

7-1 DR (to O20) 



19 



13th, 43rd, 7th, 9th. 
39th & 57th Panzer 


10th Army & 
5th Mech 


4-1 


Dl (10th Army elim) 


5th, 6th, 8th, 20th & 42nd 


3rd Army 


3-1 


DR (to L21) 


52nd PG 


3rd Mech 


1-1 


AR (to R28) 


49th Mt, 4th, 44th, 3rd, 


6th Army 


7-1 


DE 



14th and 48th Panz er 

17th, 29th & 55th 5th Army 

(with Stuka) 

Rum Cav & 4th __ 9th Army 

11th & 30th 12th Mech 

54th 4th Cav 

Rum 1st Mt & 2nd PG 5th Cav 

Axis Turn it I, Second Impulse: 

Movement: 

Unit To Hex: 

2nd Corps F19 

10th Corps F19 

1st Corps G19 

28th Corps 120 

38th Corps 120 

26th Corps H20 

41st Panzer H20 

56th Panzer H20 

5th Corps J21 

6th Corps J21 

8th Corps J22 

20th Corps J22 

42nd Corps J22 

7th Corps K22 

39th Panzer K22 

57th Panzer K22 

9th Corps M22 

13th Corps M22 

43rd Corps M22 



Combat: 
Attackers 

Finn 2nd & 4th 
1st, 2nd & 10th 
28th, 38th, 26th, 41st & 

56th Panzer 

5th & 6th 

8th, 20th & 42nd 
7th, 39th & 57th Panzer 
9th, 13th & 43rd 
12th & 24th, 47th, 

46th Panzer 
17th, 29th, 55th, 3rd & 

14th Panzer 
4th, 44th, 52nd PG & 49th 

Soviet Turn f/1, First Impulse: 

Movement: 

Unit To Hex: 



Defenders 

23rd Army 
1st Mech 
7th Mech 

11th Mech 
8th Mech 
5th Mech 
6th Cav 
4 th Army 

5th Army 

3rd Mech 



27th Army 
10th Mech 


E14 
F13 


8th Army 
1 1th Army 


H15 
J16 


8th Mech 
5th Mech 


V24 (via RR) 
J20 


7th Mech 
3rd Army 


J20 
K18 


6th Mech 
4th Mech 


K19 

N22 


4th Army 
13th Army 


N22 (via 021) 
017 


19th Army 


■■■■1 



4-1 DR {to R23) 

1-1 AR (Cav to EE27, 4th to BB27) 

2-1 DE 

1-1 DR (to CC24) 

2-1 DR (U25) 



Unit 


To I 


24th Panzer 
47th Panzer 


N23 
N23 


12th Corps 
46th Panzer 


023 
023 


17th Corps 
29th Corps 


Q23 
Q23 


55th Corps 
3rd Panzer 


R24 

R24 


14th Panzer 
4th Corps 


R24 
R26 


44th Corps 
52nd PG 


R26 
R26 


49th Corps 
48th Panzer 


R27 
T24 


Rum 2nd PG 
11th Corps 


X26 
Y24 


30th Corps 
AG North HQ 
AG Center HQ 
AG South HQ 


Z25 
G20 
121 
Q25 



Odds Result 

1-2 AR (2nd to B9, 4th to A10) 

5-1 DE 

6-1 DR (toK19) 



2-1 
3-1 

9-1 
4-1 
4-1 



DR (to K19) 
DR (to L20) 
DE 
C 



4-1 DR (to S21) 
6-1 DS 



Unit 

22nd 
9th Mech 
2nd Mech 
5 th Army 
26th Army 
18th Army 
12th Army 
5th Cav 
1st Cav 
9th Army 
4th Cav 
7th Army 
21st Army 



To Hex: 


Nil 

U22 {via RR) 


W21 (viaRR) 

T22 

V25 

X22 

W23 

V24 


V22 
AA23 




BB24 
B6 


016 (via RR) 





It has come time to see how the German high 
command was interfered with not without good 
reason, however. German intelligence was con- 
vinced that very strong Soviet forces were lurk- 
ing in the sector between Kiev and Bryansk, and 
that a massive counterattack against AG South 
was in the offing. The result was the colossal 
blunder of attacking away from the nerve-center 
of Stalin's Russia— Moscow. The drive from 
Moscow towards the Don Basin certainly dis- 
rupted Soviet industry, but led to the failure to 
take out the keystone of Soviet Russia. There 
were political considerations, of course, as con- 
tact with Germany's allies {real or imagined) in 
the Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Armenia and the Volga 
German colonies were pursued. But, the failure 
to maintain the immediate objective— Moscow— 
in the pursuit of the more esoteric, and eventually 
unattainable, goals of southern Russian and 
Persian oil fields, the opening of an overland 
route to Turkey and the Middle East, and a sub- 
sequent link-up with Japan, sent the German 
Army far afield. 

So, in the third turn, the Finns consolidate 
their position in the far north and take another 
stab at Leningrad. However, AG North failed to 
aggressively drive for that city while there was 
still time to capture it and instead spread its forces 
as far south as Vitebsk. Many of AG Center's 
units— the 8th, 9th, 12th, 13th, 42nd, 43rd and 
53rd corps— were engaged in the reduction and 
mop-up of the Minsk and Smolensk pockets 
(where, as we already mentioned, about 1000000 
Soviet troops had been isolated). This large body 
of German units was also held in the area to guard 
against suspected countermoves by the enemy in 
the Pripyet Marsh and Dnepr River area. Many 
were also kept in place for rest and refit; some 
were shifted toward the south-central part of the 
front to stiffen infantry-poor panzer units. So 
there was indeed a method to this madness. To 
block the expected Soviet counterattack from the 
south, the 24th, 39th, 47th and 57th Panzer corps, 
and the SS Reserve, were shifted away from 
Moscow in the general direction of Kursk. As 
for AG South and the Rumanian Army, they 
pretty much fanned out and drove forward from 
Odessa to Kiev, 

Combat results were even more interesting. 
A "contact" result for the Finns at Leningrad. 
An attack by 1st and 28th corps and the 41st 
Panzer from AG North pushed back the 28th 
Army. AG Center's 56th and 57th Panzer corps 
forced the 27th Army to retreat. The 5th corps, 
39th Panzer corps and SS Reserve make "con- 
tact" with the 16th and 19th armies. The 24th 
and 47th Panzer drove the 21st back. AG South 's 
29th and 55th make ' 'contact' ' with the Soviet 
5th. Meanwhile, in the sole clear victory, the 4th 
Rumanian received Stuka support to destroy the 
2nd Cavalry and take Odessa. The 48th Panzer 
Corps forced back the 18th Army. 

By the end of September in our "game", the 
combined Axis forces have pushed back and 
penetrated the Soviet front in every area— just as 
they did in the months of June, July and August 
1941 . But, a fairly continuous Russian front line 
remains, even as the German spearheads are 
being pulled away from the key objective of 
Moscow and turned towards a suspected threat 
from the battered Red Army in the Bryansk- 
Kursk area. From the deployment of forces, it 



20 



is easy to see why expert observers anticipate 
Soviet Russia's collapse. The Wehrmacht has 
fanned out to occupy a wide territory prior to the 
expected Russian debacle. But the Soviet player 
would not cooperate with this scenario. 

Some of the steam begins to dissipate from 
the Axis steamroller as the premature anticipa- 
tion of victory dulled the senses, and as the losses 
to Axis formations caused them to lose strength 
and mobility. The arrival of October 1941 brings 
the end of the dry season, so the second impulse 
of the third turn in our recreation of Barbarossa 
has "Light Mud" for the weather conditions. 

In the second half of the Axis turn, the Finns 
are driven off in yet another attack on Leningrad. 
AG North's 1st and 28th corps attack the hapless 
27th Army and destroy it, while the group's other 
units continue a slow advance and shift a bit to 
the south (to cover for AG Center as it shifts 
southward too). At AG Center, the 5th and 8th 
corps make "contact" with the 19th Army, the 
6th and 7th corps drive back the 20th, the 9th 
and 20th along with the 39th Panzer Corps and 
SS Reserve attack and eliminate the newly-arrived 
16th Army. The 24th and 47th Panzer corps con- 
tinue their single-minded drive away from 
Moscow, as they together attack and overrun the 
21st Army. 

AG South 's 29th and 55th corps push against 
the tough 5th Army and force it to retreat again. 
The 14th and 48th Panzer corps attack and push 
back the 18th Army, while the 52nd Panzer- 
grenadiers makes contact with the Russian 4th 
Cavalry Corps in Dnepropetrovsk. The 1 1th and 
20th corps force a retreat upon the 9th Army. All 
the other Axis units spread out and drive forward 
across empty spaces, but not to their full poten- 
tial as the German player consolidates his gains 
in the face of an expected Soviet capitu lat ion — a 
vain hope. 

With our perfect 20-20 hindsight, wargamers 
have the luxury of learning from the successes 
and failures of others. The opening Axis offen- 
sive proceeded quite well, in spite of some out- 
comes that can be equated with rather unlucky 
die rolls, until the third (Sept 1941) turn. The 
essential problem was Hitler's preoccupation with 
the flank of Army Group Center, which brought 
him to divert the main thrust of his effort toward 
the south. This player's impatience drove him to 
seize Kiev and Kursk, to push for Kharkov and 
Dnepropetrovsk, in order to secure the Ukraine 
and enter the Don basin, so as to move down 
towards Persia, before the main objective- 
Moscow— was occupied. Thus, his powerful 
panzer formations were diverted at the very time 
when they could have entered the Soviet capital. 

There is a famous entrepreneur who advises 
those looking to "get ahead" to study what poor 
people do . . . and then avoid that course of 
action. The same rule can be applied to war- 
gaming. Winners look at what losers have done, 
and then avoid that course of action. Take a good 
look at how Hitler managed to blunder his way 
out of success — and don't do that! 

The real irony is that the Gennan High Com- 
mand, including Hitler, had earlier decided that 
the "high road' ' to Moscow was the best chance 
for success in their RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN; and 
we certainly agree, {The "high road' ' to Moscow 
passes north of Minsk, between Smolensk and 
Vitebsk, and just south of the Moldai hilts 



Combat: 
Attackers 




Defenders 


Odds 


Result 




5th & 7th Mech 
1 1 th Mech 




28th & 38th 


1-2 


AE 






5th & 6th 


1-3 


AE 




4th Mech & 4th Army 


9th, 14th, 
43 rd, 24th & 
47th Panzer 


1-6 


Al (4th Mech elim) 


Soviet Turn #1 , Second bnpuh 

Movement: 

Unit „^^^_ To Hex: 


e: 
Defenders 


Odds 


Result 


To Hex: 


8th Mech 


T23 


6th Mech 


K20 
H13 


10th Mech 


Combat: 
Attackers 




8th & 9th Mech 




48th Panzer 


1-2 


AE 

AH 


6th Mech 

Axis Turn #2, First Impulse: 

Movement: 

Unit To Hex: 


5th & 6th 
Defenders 


i-A 

Unit 

57th 
39th 
24th 
47th 


Finn 6th 
Finn 7th 


A6 
C6 


Panzer 
Corps 


M16 
N17 


Finn 4th 
Finn 2nd 


Bll 
C9 


Panzer 
Panzer 


N21 
N21 


1st Corps 
10th Corps 


F16 
F16 


Italian 3rd 
53rd Corps 


P22 
L21 


2nd Corps 
26th Panzer 


G15 
H16 


17th 
29th 


Corps 
Corps 


S23 
S23 


41st Panzer 
56th Panzer 


H16 
116 


48th Panzer 
55th Corps 


U23 
T24 


28th Corps 
38th Corps 


.117 
J17 


3rd 
14th 
4th i 
44th 


Panzer 
Panzer 


T24 
T24 


5th Corps 
6th Corps 


J 18 (AV) 
J 18 (AV) 


^orps 
Corps 


U25 
U25 


8th Corps 
20th Corps 


J 19 (AV) 
J 19 (AV) 


52nd PG 
49th Mt. 


U25 
V26 


42nd Corps 
7th Corps 


J19 (AV) 
KI9 (AV) 


Hitler 
27th Corps 


122 (via RR) 
122 (via RR) 


9th Corps 
13th Corps 


L19 (AV) 
L19 (AV) 


SS Reserve 
40th Panzer 


.121 

Z26 (via RR) 


43 rd Corps 

Combat: 
Attackers 


L19 (AV) 


Hung 1st PG 
Odds Result 


T25 (via RR) 


5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 
13th, 20th, 42nd & 43rd 
(with Stuka) 


3rd Army 


10-1 


Automatic 


^ 


Finn 6th & 7th 




7 th Army 


1-1 


EX (Finn 


7th elim) 
2nd elim) 


Finn 2nd & 4th 




23rd Army 


1-2 


EX (Finn 


2nd, 26th & 41st 
28th. 28th & 56tl 
(with Stuka) 


Panzer 


6th Army 


3-1 


EX (2nd ( 


]orps elim) 
Corps elim) 


i Panzer 


1 1th Army 


5-1 


EX (38th 


39th Panzer 

1 /t»U ff. .tf*7*U n*.... 




21st Army 

1 "} >. L. A i n-i » i 


2-1 


DR (to Q16) 


Z4tll & 4/tn ranzer 
46th Panzer & 12th 


lJtn Army 
4th Army 


2-1 


DE 


wmmsa 


48th Panzer (with 

4th, 44th, 52nd F 

49th Mt. & Run 


Stuka) 


5th Cav 


5-1 


DE 


G, 

1 1st Mt. 


26th Army 


4-1 


EX (4th Corps elim) 


11th, 30th & Rum 2nd PG 


12th Army 


2-1 


DE 1M 




Axis Turn #2, Second Impulse 

Movement: 

Unit ^^^^ To Hex: 




Unit 




To Hex: 


1st Corps 


E15 


24th Panzer 


P16 


10th Corps 


B15 


47th 
17th 


Panzer 


P16 


26th Corps 


H14 


Corps 


S22 













21 



41st Panzer 
56th Panzer 


113 
113 


28th Corps 
5 th Corps 


K15 
E15 


6th Corps 
8th Corps 


E15 
K17 


20th Corps 
42nd Corps 


K17 
K17 


7th Corps 
SS Reserve 


LIS 
Li8 


9th Corps 
43 rd Corps 


K16 
K16 


13m Corps 
46th Panzer 


N18 
L20 


53rd Corps 
12th Corps 


L21 

N20 


57th Panzer 
39th Panzer 


014 
15 



29th Corps 
55 th Corps 
48th Panzer 
3rd Panzer 
14th Panzer 
44th Corps 
49th Mt. 
52nd PG 
Rum 2nd PG 
11th Corps 
30th Corps 
54th Corps 
40th Panzer 
AG North HQ 
AG Center HQ 
AG South HQ 
23rd Corps 
Rum 5th 




Combat: 
Attackers 


Defenders 


Odds 


Result 


1st & 10th 


27th Army 


1-1 


EX (i 0th Corps elim) 


26th, 41st & 56th Panzer 


10th Mech 


6-1 


DE 


24th & 47th Panzer 


2 1st Army 


3-1 


DE 



17th, 29th, 55th & 
48th Panzer 
3rd & 14th Panzer 
52nd PG & Rum 2nd 
Ilth & 30th 
54th & 40th Panzer 



PG 



5th Army 

1st Cav 
2nd Mech 
18th Army 
9th Army 



3-1 EX (3rd Panzer elim) 

3-1 EX (Rum 2nd PG elim) 

1-2 C 

2-1 DR (to CC22) 



Soviet Turn #2, First Impulse: 

Replacements: 

27th Army (Leningrad), 21st Army (Moscow), 3rd Cavalry (Moscow), 5th Cavalry (Moscow) 



Movement: 
Unit 


To Hex: 


Unit 


To Hex: 


27th Army 
21st Army 


F13 

T16 (via RR) 


9th Army 
1 8th Army 


EE20 
Z20 


20th Army 
16th Army 


P14 (via RR) 
Q13 (via RR) 


4th Cav 
5 th Army 


DD18 
W21 


3rd Cav 
5th Cav 


T14 

SI7 (via RR) 


19th Army 
22nd Army 


N13 
K12 


Combat: 
Attackers 


Defenders 


Odds Result 




5th Army 


52nd PG 


1-1 C 





Soviet Turn U2, Second Impulse: 

No Movement 

Combat: 



Attackers 

5th Army 

Axis Turn #3, First Impulse: 

Movement: 

Unit To Hex: 



Defenders 

52nd PG 



Odds 

1-1 



Result 

AR (to W20) 



Finn 6th 
Finn 4th 
1st Corps 
28th Corps 
41st Panzer 
56th Panzer 
8th Corps 
42nd Corps 
53rd Corps 
43rd Corps 
12th Corps 
13th Corps 



D7 

D10 

F13 

G13 

H13 

J13 

N15 

D18 

N18 

N17 

016 

015 



Unit 


To Hex: 


46th Panzer 
17th Corps 


Q16 

T22 


29th Corps 
55th Corps 
Hung 1st PG 
44th Corps 


W21 
V21 
W21 
Y2I 


49th Mt. 
14th Panzer 


AA21 
BB21 


52nd PG 
48th Panzer 


BB21 
AA20 


Rum 1st Mt. 
Rum 4th 


BB24 
CC24 



Options to Play a Historical Game 

To re-create the historical conditions of the 
actual campaign in the game, use all of the 
"Play Balance" optional rules, except the 
final one (26.8). Instead of using this rule, 
refer to the historical Weather Chart under 
optional rule 26.6. Two excellent game vari- 
ants to include for a historical recreation of 
the actual campaign in the "But What If . , 
(by Richard Hamblen, the game's developer, 
on page 9 in the 3rd edition rulebook) are: 
the inclusion of the artillery corps (I), and the 
unlimited Black Sea invasions (II). (In the 
actual campaign, numerous small invasions 
were accomplished, including a German 
counter-landing behind the beachhead of a 
Soviet landing.) 

When invoking these options and variants, 
putting them to the best use will reflect the 
multiplying effect of "combined arms" 
actions— that is, the cumulative weight of 
stukas, panzers, panzergrenadiers, infantry, 
artillery and sea movement for the Axis, and 
the use of paratroop, partisan, armor, cavalry, 
infantry and artillery units (and sea move- 
ment) for the Soviet player. These diverse 
elements do not merely add up to a greater 
sum, but in effect multiply the factors of the 
forces involved to enhance combat effec- 
tiveness. 

Using the above, and the historical set-up 
as described in the other accompanying side- 
bar, a reflection of the real-life campaign for 
history buffs, military scientists or curious 
game players can be accomplished. 



centered on hex K10.) All available forces and 
reinforcements must be thrown into this corridor 
in a drive straight for the heart of the Soviet 
Union. The Moldai hills and the forests nearby 
must be cleared of enemy units, and river cross- 
ings made north and northeast of the capital 
(through Kalinin and toward Gorki). Once the 
capital is partially surrounded, there is a rea- 
sonable chance for a successful assault. With 
Moscow in Axis hands, Leningrad can be made 
to wither on the vine, and the majority of the Axis 
strength can be thrown into the next battles in the 
east and the south. 

With all this in mind, it is imperative that AG 
Center's forces not be frittered away helping AG 
North or AG South. In fact, groups North and 
South need only advance far enough to help cover 
AG Center's flanks. Some of AG South 's forces 
can try to knock out the Soviet industrial capacity 
(represented by the Worker units), while all avail- 
able reserves are sent to AG Center. 

The key objective is Moscow. The occupa- 
tion of Moscow by the Red Army allowed it to 
win the civil war against the Whites, and the Axis 
occupation of the city will have the same result 
provided the Axis player pursues victory judi- 
ciously after seizing the heart of the Soviet Union. 
This can be done by a strategy of "defeat in 
detail" of the remaining Russian units by hold- 
ing the enemy units in one area with adequate 
forces while concentrating superior forces against 
a part of the remaining Red Army. So, it can 
never be emphasized too strongly: seize Moscow, 
and an Axis victory is a real possibility in THE 
RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN. 



22 



9th Corps 
6th Corps 
5th Corps 
7th Corps 
20th Corps 
39th Panzer 
SS Reserve 
24th Panzer 
47th Panzer 
57th Panzer 
Italian 3rd 



P15 

014 

N14 

015 

015 

Q14 

Q14 

S15 

S15 

J13 

Q21 



Combat: 

Attackers 

Finn 4th 

1st, 28th & 41st Panzer 
56th & 57th Panzer 
(with Stuka) 
5th 

39th Panzer & SS Reserve 
24th & 47th Panzer 
29th & 55th 
Rum 4th (with Stuka) 
48th Panzer 

Axis Turn §3, Second Impulse: 
Movement: 

Unit 

1 st Corps 
28th Corps 
41st Panzer 
56th Panzer 
23rd Corps 
27th Corps 
57 th Panzer 
40th Panzer 
6th Corps 
8th Corps 
7th Corps 
9th Corps 
20th Corps 
SS Reserve 
39th Panzer 
12th Corps 
13th Corps 

Combat: 
Attackers 

Finn 4th 
1st & 28th 
5th &. 8th 
6th & 7th 

9th, 20th, 39th Panzer & 
SS Reserve 
24th & 47th Panzer 
29th & 55th 
1 4th & 48th Panzer 
52nd PG 
11th & 30th 



Defenders 

Leningrad W 
27th Army 
22nd Army 

19th Army 
16th Army 
21st Army 
5th Army 
2nd Cav 
18th Army 




Defenders 

Leningrad W 
27th Army 
19th Army 
20th Army 
16th Army 

21st Army 
5th Army 
18th Army 
4th Cav 
9th Army 




Rum Cav 
54th Corps 
30th Corps 
11th Corps 
34th Corps 
23 rd Corps 
27th Corps 
40th Panzer 
35th Corps 
Rum 5th 
Italian 4th 



FF22 

BB21 

CC21 

CC20 

122 (via RR) 

L15 (via RR) 

LI 5 (via RR) 

L14 (via RR) 

OI6 

BB23 (via RR) 

Q21 (via RR) 



Odds 

1-1 

3-1 
5-1 

1-1 
1-1 
3-1 
1-1 
3-1 
1-1 



Result 
C 

DR (to FI 1) 
DR (to K10) 

C 

C 

DR (to VI 6) 

■■■■■ 
DE 
DR (to Z18) 



Unit 


To Hex: 


46th Panzer 
24th Panzer 


T16 
U15 


47th Panzer 
35th Corps 


U16 
Q16 


43rd Corps 
53rd Corps 


P16 
016 


42nd Corps 
Italian 3rd 


O20 
R21 


17th Corps 
44th Corps 


T21 
Y19 


48th Panzer 
49th Mt. 


AA18 
AA19 


54th Corps 
52nd PG 


CC19 
DD19 


1 1th Corps 
30th Corps 
AG Center HQ 


DD20 
DD21 
N15 



Odds 

l-l 

l-l 
l-l 

2-1 

3-1 

3-1 
1-1 

3-1 
1-2 
1-1 



Result 

AR (to CIO) 
DE 

DR (to RI2) 
DE 



DR (to XI 5) 

DR (to W18) 

DR (to AA16) 

C 

DR (GG19) 




EDITOR'S 
CHOICE 
AWARDS 

This issue marks the beginning of yet another 
volume year for The GENERAL. As is our usual 
custom, we'd like to honor the best of the many 
writers who submitted their material to our 
tender mercies for publication within these 
pages during the year past. The strength of The 
GENERAL has always been the many excellent 
articles written by gamers; once a year we look 
to reward the "best of the best". But, selecting 
one author's work to hold up as the ideal is 
a tough task— that's why we drop it on the 
shoulders of the readership. A poll of the readers 
will determine one author from the list we com- 
piled to be named "Editor's Choice". He will 
receive a lifetime subscription to The GENERAL, 
in addition to a $100 bonus. Please vote for only 
one of the nominees, and vote only if you have 
read all the articles nominated. Eliminating those 
articles written by our paid Avalon Hill staff, 
we offer the following articles from Vol. 26 to 
select from: 

□ BEYOND THE ELEVENTH CARD 

Jim Eliason, No. 1 

D TRAVELIN' TO THE TURNING POINT 
David Chapel, No, 2 

□ THE FORGOTTEN YEAR 

David Howery, No. 2 

□ A FLAME IN THE GULF 

James Werbaneth, No. 3 

D WINGS OVER KOREA 
Roger Horky, No. 3 

□ 501 CITY-FIGHT-IN-FOUR 

Marcus Watncy, No. 5 

D RED DEVILS 

Steven Swann, No. 5 

□ A BED OF STEEL 

Alan Applebaum, No. 6 

D UP THE SLOPES AND AT 'EM 
John Hyler, No. 6 



AH Philosophy ■ . . Cont'd from Page 4 

There is no law that says our industry 
must continue. If we abuse our customers by 
catering to the needs of a subset, they could 
just walk away from us. What should we do? 

First, we should recognize that the 
aficionados are a vocal minority. An important 
one, but a minority nonetheless. We need to 
apply a "skepticism discount" to the com- 
ments we read on the nets or in the maga- 
zines. They don't represent the majority. 

Second, we need to make a greater effort 
to gather the opinions of the Silent Majority 
of customers, the people who don't volunteer 
their opinions. We have to go to them 
because they won't come to us. 

And finally, we should label our games 
with honest representations of our target 
market. Labels such as "Perfect for Begin- 
ners!" and "Deep, Complex Game Play!" 
would help us serve both the beginner and 
the aficionado. * 



23 



DIVISIONS, CORPS & ARMIES 

Realistic RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 

By Antonio J. Munoz 



RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN is, by far, my favorite 
wargame of all time. I feel it is a well-balanced 
and fast-playing, relatively realistic game. Having 
played it at least once a week for almost 13 years, 
I have become intimately familiar with not only 
the game mechanics, but the tactics as well. But 
a while back I caught myself moving the pieces 
to pre-determined locations without really think- 
ing about my moves. I couldn't believe it; bore- 
dom had set in! At first I was disappointed that 
such a classic had finally failed to stimulate the 
competitive senses. But the game was just too 
good for me to "retire" from the game shelf, 
so I resolved to make some changes to add spice 
again to its play. 

This was no small feat, to say the least. The 
game mechanics work so well that it would have 
been very easy to wreck the balanced design if 
I made wholesale changes. Determined as I was. 
I proceeded with the hope that my attempt would 
not create some sort of mutant monster. After 
many trials and tribulations (including very 
helpful comments from Richard Hamblen, who 
labored on the original version), I arrived at a 
game variant I think the readers will enjoy. Once 
you play this variant two or three times, I am sure 
that you will agree it is a refreshing change- 
one that you can quickly become addicted to. 

The single most significant change is how the 
orders of batde have been restructured. In addi- 
tion, the replacement system has been scrapped 
for a less-abstract method which conforms to this 
approach. In effect, while the starting on-board 
forces remain the same, from that point on, both 
reinforcements and replacements are combined 
and brought into play in a unique method, giv- 
ing both players more flexibility in their planning 
and play, as well as forcing them into facing many 
more decisions. Do you continue to mass a large 
off-board pool of divisions to deliver a surprise 
counterattack, even while your lines are being 
shattered? Do you feed in reinforcements as fast 
as they arrive to delay defeat, or hold them for 
a final stand hoping for a pyhrric victory? These 
are the sorts of strategic-level questions you will 
now face when playing RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN. 

AXIS FORCES 

Let us first discuss the new German order (of 
battle). The new replacement/ reinforcement OB 
for the Axis is a division-level list beginning in 
June 1941 and ending in April 1945. Axis (as well 
as Soviet) players now convert their divisional 
reinforcements into corps-sized units. These units 
are represented by the counters upon the 
mapboard. 

For example, in the January 1942 turn the 
Axis player receives six German infantry and four 
Finnish infantry divisions (see the "Reinforce- 
ment Schedule" listing). In this variant, during 
his Reinforcement Phase of the Jan 1942 turn, 
he would convert these into corps before employ- 
ing them on the mapboard. Since the war pro- 
duced varying types of divisions with varying 
strengths, a straightforward conversion table was 



demanded which would take this variance into 
account, turning the units into strength points (SP) 
for the game system {see Table 1) first. Thus, 
the Axis player could decide to bring on his six 
strength points in the form of two 3-4 infantry 
counters, or one 4-4 infantry corps, or one 5-4 
unit. Note that in the latter two cases, he would 
have extra (two divisions and one division respec- 
tively) which he could record for later use. 

Before I elaborate further, an explanation of 
the exchange ratios (divisions to SP) is warranted. 
Every wargamer knows that because of material 
deficiencies and low training and/or morale (or 
all three), the lesser Axis divisions were never 
on a par with the regular Wehrmacht or Finnish 
(to say nothing of the SS) formations. This also 
holds true of the German training divisions, Luft- 
waffe ground divisions and late- war Naval Infan- 
try divisions. For instance, in the latters" case, 
although the Naval divisions were well manned 
by 1945 standards (averaging around 12000 men 
apiece), these ex-sailors had no experience what- 
soever as infantrymen. Therefore, for all these 
formations, it takes two divisions to equal one 
TRC SP. 

German cavalry and infantry divisions were 
more (or less) my standard; hence the one-for- 
one conversion rate. Gebirgsjaeger (Mountain) 
divisioas only contained two infantry regiments 
compared to the three found in regular Wehr- 
macht divisions, but they tended to be highly 
trained and aggressive; for this reason I placed 
them on a par with the cavalry and infantry 
divisions. 

The German airborne divisions were magnifi- 
cently armed and trained, with high-quality per- 
sonnel. On that basis, the German parachute 
divisions were at least equal to a German pan- 
zergrenadier division. Though the PG division 
had a tank or assault gun battalion in its TO&E, 
the parachute division usually had an entire 
motorized Flak regiment, containing a goodly 
number of the famed '88s which proved to be 
exceptional AT guns. While on this topic, in the 
original design for TRC, Mr. Hamblen counted 
the German "light" divisions as the equivalent 
of a PG division. In my revised OB, they are 
listed as infantry divisions for they lacked the 
armored element of the panzergrenadiers. 

German panzer divisions have been placed on 
an equal footing with the SS PG divisions, for 
the following reasons. As the war progressed, it 
became increasingly difficult for the German 
Army to replenish armor losses. On the other 
hand, the SS formations were almost always 
refurbished to full strength. While the SS panzer 
divisions were exclusively strengthened beyond 
the level of Wehrmacht formations (with some 
exceptions such as the "Grossdeutshland"), 
the SS grenadiers were equipped much the same 
as similar formations in the regular arm (although 
Himmler insured they were always up to 
strength). Further, the SS PG divisions made their 
appearance on the East Front in 1943, after the 
Panther tank had made its debut, and their tank 



battalions were usually equipped with this 
superior model. In terms of offensive capacity, 
I rate the SS panzergrenadier division in 1943 the 
equivalent of any regular Panzer division. The 
SS panzer divisions, having many more tanks, 
of the latest model, are better yet. At full strength, 
an SS panzer division had approximately 21000 
men and 200 tanks. While I originally rated the 
SS panzer divisions lower, Richard Hamblen 
thought five SP more realistic. Reviewing the his- 
tory of their operations, I find that his apprecia- 
tion is more precise. 

SS Cavalry divisions were always better 
equipped than the German Army counterpart. It 
was structured in much the same way, but the 
table of organization was larger. For this reason, 
each SS cavalry division is worth L5 SP. 

The Finnish infantry are given equal weight 
to the German infantry, simply because their war- 
time performance placed them on at least the level 
of the German divisions. The other Axis armored 
and armored infantry divisions are also worth one 
SP. Though they were mechanized, they tended 
to be of small size. Their tank complement was 
usually made up of obsolete models, but this did 
give them the ability to operate on the same level 
as a German infantry division. Thus, these are 
converted on a 1:1 basis as well. 

Referring back to our earlier example of the 
January '42 Axis reinforcements, we speculated 
that with six German infantry divisions, the 
German player couid form either two 3-4 infan- 
try corps, or a 4-4, or a 5-4 (with one strength 
point left over). Let's assume that he chooses to 
keep this extra point (remember that it represents 
an infantry division) as a sort of reserve. Alone 
it cannot form a corps-sized unit, and thus could 
not alone be employed on the map in the January 
1942 turn. Since there is no way we can realisti- 
cally show this lone infantry division given the 
scale of TRC, let us assume that the Wehrmacht 
will hold this division "off the map" as a strategic 
reserve. We can represent this off-map reserve 
simply by recording it on a piece of paper, where 
a running total of excess divisions (by type) can 
be maintained. Later, these may be deducted from 
the total to create (or help create) new corps-sized 
units for on-map entry. 

Notice that the arrival of reinfocements in a 
given month no longer forces the player receiv- 
ing them to commit them on that date. The 
players may elect to hold back some or all of these 
reinforcements for later use. The "force pool" 
(that piece of paper) should be divided by divi- 
sional type and nationality. For example, if in 
January 1945 the German player chooses to place 
all his reinforcements in the force pool, six 
German infantry would be added to the total 
already in the pool for that type (if any); the three 
Hungarian infantry divisions would be added to 
that total; and so forth by nationality and type. 
Thus, each turn each player's reserve will vary, 
depending on what divisions are placed in the 
pool and what new corps are raised from the pool 
(remember that you are not required to place divi- 



24 



TABLE 1: Axis Division to SP Exchange Ratio 

Division Type: Div = SP 

German Reserve/Training 2 = 1 

German Luftwaffe 2 = 1 

German Naval Infantry 2 = 1 

German Mountain 1=1 

German Cavalry 1=1 

German Infantry 1=1 

German Parachute 1=2 

German Panzergrenadier 1 =2 

German Panzer 1 =3 

German Artillery 1 = * 

SS Mountain 1 ■ 1 

SS Infantry 1 = 1 

SS Cavalry 1 = 1.5 

SS Panzergrenadier 1 = 3 

SS Panzer 1 = 5 

Finn Infantry 1=1 

Italian, Rumanian or Hungarian Infantry 2 = 1 

Rumanian or Hungarian Mountain 2=1 

Rumanian or Hungarian Cavalry 2=1 

Italian, Rumanian or Hungarian Panzergrenadier 1 = 1 

Rumanian or Hungarian Panzer 1 = 1 

Note: A Tier conversion is complete, round all fractions down to the nearest whole number SP. 



TABLE 2: Soviet Tank Annies 



Army Type 

6-5 Tank Army 

8-6 Guards Tank Army 
10-7 Guards Tank Army 



Corps Required 

three (3) 2-5 corps or 

two (2) 3-5 corps 

two (2) 3-5 and one 2-5 corps or 

three (3) 3-5 corps 

three (3) 3-5 corps or 

five (5) 2-5 corps or 

two (2) 3-5 and two (2) 2-5 corps 




TABLE 3: Soviet Division to SP Exchange Ratio 



Year 


Non-Guards 


Guards 


1941 


2=1 


1.5=1 


1942 


2 = 1 


1 = 1 


1943 


1 = 1 




1944 


1 = 1 


1 = 1.5 


1945 


1=1 


1=2 



Nate: After conversion is complete, round all fractions down to the nearest whole number SP. 



sional reinforcements into the pool in order to 
form corps). It will be easier if you make boxes 
upon your sheet of paper and label each accord- 
ing to rype of division and nationality, but any 
method that allows you to keep track of the cur- 
rent divisions in the force pool is suitable. 

[For a unique method of simulating "fog of 
war" on the strategic plane, keep this "force 
pool" secret from the other player. Of course, 
this demands a certain amount of trust that your 
opponent (whose own record will be hidden from 
you) will not violate the spirit or rules of this 
variant in his recording of divisions and raising 
of corps. Thus, it is recommended only for 
friendly games— not tournament or rated play.] 

I must mention here that a quick glance at the 
reinforcement schedules of this variant might 
leave the reader thinking that the original 
RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN OB was somewhat lack- 
ing. This could not be further from the truth. The 
reinforcements which appear in my list were 
indeed factored into the original, but were 
"hidden". For instance, the replacements which 
the German player receives at the start of the first 
Clear weather turn were historically refurbished 
divisions which had been withdrawn earlier from 
the Eastern front when losses had so depleted 
them as to make them ineffective. If you think 
about it, this variant system is more realistic than 
the original since in the actual campaign the 
German replacements were never "held back" 
until clear weather, but were arriving every 
month. 

It is important to understand that the "Rein- 
forcement Schedule" takes into account both 
reinforcements {20. in the 3rd Edition rules) and 
replacements (21 . and 22.), In the original design, 
the reinforcements arrive as per the OB cards, 
while the replacement rules represent returning 
combat units which had been withdrawn for refit 
and replenishment. In this variant, these two have 
been combined and factored together into the 
"Reinforcement Schedule". That is to say, the 
divisions which the German player receives each 



turn are new units or returning combat forma- 
tions. In many cases, historically, they were a 
combination of both. To make this divisional OB 
less complicated, I opted to exclude the long list 
of withdrawn divisions. The procedures of with- 
drawing certain divisions (or even number of 
divisions) each month cannot be readily shown 
in a corps-level design. 

There are some limitations on how the 
German player may form specific corps-sized 
units. It is a historical fact that no matter what 
"type" of corps {infantry, panzer, mountain, 
etc.), the divisions assigned to them varied in type 
as was convenient or practical. For example, a 
German infantry corps might well have not only 
infantry divisions assigned, but a mountain divi- 
sion as well. A mountain corps was not composed 
exclusively of mountain divisions. Panzer divi- 
sions and PG divisions were integrated with in- 
fantry formations to form new corps, regardless 
of their designation. The problem which arises 
in this game would be that following the above 
free-form practice completely wrecks the game 
system as it relates to special capabilities of 
specific counters. 

In an attempt to maintain the "integrity" of 
the playing pieces, while at the same time give 
the players maximum flexibility (simulating 
actuai practice), I have devised a list of corps 
which the players may form, and for each listed 
the types of divisions which mustican be used to 
form them. Some corps, readers will find, can 
be formed from just about anything; others will 
require only one type of division/SP. Note that 
you are still limited by the original countermix. 
For example, the German player may never have 
more than four 8-7 panzer corps on the map- 
board; although he may have many more panzer 
divisions in his force pool in reserve. Please refer 
to the list below when forming Axis corps each 
turn: 

1. German INFANTRY CORPS— At least 

one German Infantry division must be used. 

Other divisions that may then be added include 



SS Infantry, Mountain, SS Mountain, Naval 
Infantry, Luftwaffe and Reserve/Training SP. 

2. SS INFANTRY CORPS— At least one 
SS Infantry division must be used. Other di- 
visions that may then be added include Ger- 
man Infantry, German Mountain, SS 
Mountain and Naval Infantry SP. 

3. German MOUNTAIN CORPS-At least 
one German Mountain division must be used. 
Only SS Mountain SP may then be added, 

4. SS MOUNTAIN CORPS-At least one 
SS Mountain division must be used. Only 
German SS Mountain SP may then be added. 

5. German CAVALRY CORPS— At least 
one German Cavalry division must be used. 
Only SS Cavalry units may fill out this corps. 

6. SS CAVALRY CORPS— At least one SS 
Cavalry division must be used. Only German 
Cavalry units may fill out this corps. 

7. German PANZER CORPS— At least one 
German Panzer division must be used. Other 
SP included may be SS Panzer, German and 
SS Panzergrenadier. 

8. SS PANZER CORPS— At least one SS 
Panzer division must be used. Other SP in- 
cluded may be German Panzer, German and 
SS Panzergrenadier. 

9. German PANZERGRENADIER CORPS 
— At least one German Panzergrenadier 
division must be used. Other SP included may 
be German Panzer. 

10. SS PANZERGRENADIER CORPS-At 
least one SS Panzergrenadier division must 
be used. Other SP included may be German 
or SS Panzer. 

11. German LUFTWAFFE CORPS-Only 
Luftwaffe divisions may comprise this corps. 

12. German PARATROOP CORPS-Only 
German Parachute divisions may comprise 
this corps. 



25 



13. German ARTILLERY CORPS-One 
German Artillery division and two German 
Infantry divisions must be used in order to 
activate this corps. 

14. Finnish INFANTRY CORPS— Only 
Finnish Infantry SP may be used to form these 
corps. 

15. Italian/Rumanian/Hungarian INFAN- 
TRY CORPS— Any SP of the proper nation- 
ality may be used to form these corps. 

16. Rumanian/Hungarian PANZERGREN- 
ADIER CORPS— Only Panzer and Panzer- 
grenadier SP of the proper nationality may be 
used to form these corps. 

17. Rumanian CAVALRY CORPS— Only 

Rumanian and German Cavalry divisions may 
be used to form. 

18. Rumanian MOUNTAIN CORPS— Only 
Rumanian and German Mountain divisions 
may be used to form. 

19. Rumanian PANZER CORPS— Only 
Rumanian Panzer divisions may be used to 
form. 

Let us now consider the withdrawal of the 
Axis allied minor countries, as it would apply in 
this variant. In standard RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN, 
the Italian ccontingent is withdrawn in the January 
1943 game turn. In our variant, the Italian units 
(corps) will remain in play through May 1943. 
At the beginning of the June 1943 game turn, all 
Italian units on board and Italian divisions still 
in the force pool are immediately removed. 

Hungarian surrender is not possible after 
January 1943. Should Hungary surrender before 
that (as per 25.1), handle as with the Italian 
withdrawal— simply removing all Hungarian 
corps and divisions. Likewise all Finnish forces 
should Helsinki be captured. 

As for Rumania, it will surrender automati- 
cally once six Russian units are in Rumania at 
the end of any impulse after January 1943. At 
that instance, the following rules come into effect. 
All Rumanian units stacked with other Axis 
nationalities are immediately removed, as are all 
Rumanian force-pool divisions. All on-board 
Rumanian units which are not stacked with any 
German/SS unit come under the control of the 
Russian player, beginning with the Russian im- 
pulse following the surrender. At this point, 
Rumanian units under Russian control can not 
only trace a valid supply line to Bucharest, but 
can make use of any Russian supply sources in- 
stead (and trace supply through Russian, but not 
Axis, units). The Russian player receives no 
Rumanian reinforcement divisions and no further 
Rumanian units enter play on either side— with 
one exception. If the Rumanian 4-6 PG corps is 
not in piay on the map at the time of the sur- 
render, regardless of the number of Rumanian 
panzer/panzergrenadier SP stored in the Axis 
force pool, it will appear under Russian control 
one turn later, (For example, if in the July 1944 
phase the Russians force a Rumanian surrender 
and the Rumanian 2nd PG is eliminated due to 
being stacked with a German unit, it would 
appear as a Russian reinforcement in Bucharest 
in September 1944— two impulses after it was 
removed from the map.) 

Looking at the original "German OB Chart", 
note that there are several special reinforcements 



REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: 



German infantry division: 

German panzergrenadier division: 

German panzer division: 

German mountain division: 

German cavalry division: 

German reserve/training division: 

German Luftwaffe division: 

German parachute division; 

German SS infantry division: 

German SS panzer division: 

German SS panzergrenadier division: 

German SS mountain division: 

German SS cavalry division: 

German artillery division: 

Finnish infantry division: 

Rumanian infantry division: 

Rumanian mountain division: 

Rumanian panzer division: 

Rumanian cavalry division: 

Hungarian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian panzer division: 

Rumanian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian infantry division: 

Hungarian mountain division: 

Hungarian cavalry division: 

Italian infantry division: 

Italian panzergrenadier division: 

German Naval division: 

Russian infantry division: 

Russian cavalry division: 

Russian tank division: 

Russian tank corps: 

Russian mechanized corps: 

Russian artillery corps: 

Guard infantry division: 

Guard cavalry division: 

Guard tank division: 

Guard mechanized/tank corps: 

Guard parachute corps: 



JUNE 
1941 


JULY 

1941 


AUG 
1941 


SEPT 
1941 


OCT 
1941 


NOV 

1941 


2 


19 


2 


2 


1 


2 




1 


















2 






1 
















































































































































2 


8 




2 














































































2 






































2 












1 




















2 


85 


40 


32 


29 


24 


3 


6 


12 


5 


10 


10 




11 


1 


1 


2 


2 












































3 


3 


2 












4 


































1 


2 



26 

REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: 



German infantry division: 

German panzergrenadier division: 

German panzer division: 

German mountain division: 

German cavalry division: 

German reserve/training division: 

German Luftwaffe division: 

German parachute division: 

German SS infantry division: 

German SS panzer division: 

German SS panzergrenadier division: 

German SS mountain division: 

German SS cavalry division: 

German artillery division: 

Finnish infantry division: 

Rumanian infantry division: 

Rumanian mountain division: 

Rumanian panzer division: 

Rumanian cavalry division: 

Hungarian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian panzer division: 

Rumanian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian infantry division: 

Hungarian mountain division: 

Hungarian cavalry division: 

Italian infantry division: 

Italian panzergrenadier division: 

German Naval division: 

Russian infantry division: 

Russian cavalry division: 

Russian tank division: 

Russian tank corps: 

Russian mechanized corps: 

Russian artillery corps: 

Guard infantry division: 

Guard cavalry division: 

Guard tank division: 

Guard mechanized/tank corps: 

Guard parachute corps: 



DEC 
1941 


JAN 
1942 


FEB 
1942 


MAR 
1942 


APR 
1942 


MAY 

1942 


JUNE 
1942 


1 


6 


7 


4 


1 


3 


10 












1 










1 


1 




1 










1 




















































































































































4 
















4 






1 


4 












2 




























3 




1 


















































] 


1 


3 








































































39 


42 


8 


16 


12 


12 


16 


2 


3 


1 




4 




1 
























11 


6 


8 
































4 


2 


7 


1 


7 


2 


2 


1 














2 


2 


3 





































possible. The Bulgarian Garrison (20.6) and 
Northern Finland forces (20.5) still enter play 
under the same conditions and in the same form 
and location. These represent corps-sized units 
withdrawn from other operations not covered by 
the map, and therefore were not reflected in my 
"Reinforcement Schedule". On the other hand, 
the units that comprise the Warsaw Garrison were 
included, and so players of this variant must 
ignore Rule 20.7. 

To close out this section, I'd like to make note 
of a couple of historical oddities. In the actual 
OB, the Slovakian "Fast" Division (panzer- 
grenadiers) was incorporated into the Hungarian 
PG corps. I have shown this division as a 
Hungarian reinforcement for December 1941. In 
addition, there were several weak Solovakian 
infantry divisions, which were also incorporated 
into Hungarian formations. These too are shown 
as Hungarian infantry divisions (July 1941 and 
October 1943). Given that these divisions never 
formed a national corps but were instead used to 
fill out the Hungarian OB, such a recording on 
the "Reinforcement Schedule" seemed best to 
avoid confusion. 

In some instances on the German schedule, 
independent brigades or battlegroups have been 
merged together to be entered as division-sized 
units. This too was done to avoid complications 
and confusion. For example, in luly 1943, a 
Panther tank brigade and the 656th Tank 
Destroyer Regiment arrived on the East Front. 
Though the Panthers and Ferdinands suffered 
from some "teething" problems, their effect was 
immediate. However, rather than discount these 
completely, or complicate the system to represent 
them separately, I have chosen to indicate their 
arrival and impact by giving the Germans a new 
panzer division in that month (although no 
"division" arrived). Experts in the Eastern Cam- 
paign will no doubt notice other such instances 
of this merging of lower echelon formations to 
represent a new division, where in fact none 
existed. 

Additionally, the Geroians formed several 
Korps Abteilung, or divisional battlegroups com- 
posed of shattered German divisions, of regi- 
mental strength. When grouped together, they 
equaled about a division or more in strength. 
These too have been counted as "divisions" for 
convenience. 

Historically, the German military was graced 
with two Cossack cavalry divisions. Though they 
were later transferred from the ranks of the Heer 
into the SS (December 1944), the change was 
merely a paper formality. In effect, the divisions 
were large, well-officered, and blessed with great 
elan. In order to accurately portray their effect, 
these two divisions (in October 1943 and August 
1944) are entered on the Reinforcement Schedule 
as SS cavalry divisions (although both entered 
Army service originally) to benefit from the 
higher division-to-SP ratio. In December 1944, 
these were grouped together into the XV SS- 
Cossack Corps, which also included a Cossack 
Plastun (infantry) brigade as well — in all, about 
70000 anti-Stalinist patriots. 

FLAK CORPS 

To the German countermix, I have added one 
new type of optional unit— the Flak corps. These 
are special units which, if both players agree, can 






27 



be used by the Axis player. There are two types 
of Flak corps: stationary and mobile. During the 
war, Germany organized several Flak corps for 
anti-aircraft defense. These were not only in- 
tended for defense against the increasing threat 
of enemy air operations, but could serve in a 
ground role — and did. 



IlMl CT 

5(2>0 



Mil* 

5(2)-0 



[aa 
5(2)-5 



l ira 

[AAl w 

5(2)-5 



The Flak corps used in the home defense AA 
role were mainly stationary. There was no need 
to fully motorize them. In the scope of RUSSIAN 
CAMPAIGN, two such units may be added, 
appearing at the start of the variant game in the 
following cities: 3rd Flak Corps in Berlin, and 
8th Flak Corps in Bucharest. These corps carried 
on their rolls several regiments, most armed with 
the dreaded 88mm Flak gun. The more power- 
fill 128mm Flak gun was also abundant. Their 
employment in the ground role proved highly suc- 
cessful, but they could be easily destroyed if not 
given adequate infantry or armored support. For 
this reason, these two units have a strength of 
"5" and a movement allowance of "0". As with 
any unit, they may be moved by rail. These 
stationary Flak corps do not count for stacking. 

Given their role, they cannot participate in any 
attack; the "5" SP may be used only for defense, 
and then only if the Axis player has at least one 
non-Flak, non-HQ, non-artillery unit stacked with 
the Flak corps in question. If any Flak unit is 
attacked while alone in a hex, it defends with only 
"2" SP (signified by the parenthesized value on 
the counter); terrain effects are calculated using 
this value. Thus, if the 3rd Flak Corps alone was 
in Berlin under attack by Soviet units, its total 
defensive value would be "4" (for defending in 
a major city). 

Mobile Flak corps have the added advantage 
of being fully motorized. These were specially 
outfitted Flak units assigned to the Eastern Front; 
and Goering saw to it that these Luftwaffe 
formations were equipped with the latest in 
weaponry and transport. The Flak corps included 
not only the light, medium and heavy AA {20mm, 
37mm and 88mm) but some 128mm guns and an 
infantry contingent as well. As can be imagined, 
these Flak corps required huge "baggage trains"; 
and for this reason will count for stacking as does 
any combat unit. 

Though the regiments of these corps were 
motorized, it was almost a technical impossibility 
for the corps to be employed in one small sector 
of the front. Instead, individual battalions and 
regiments were assigned to support individual 
divisions and/or corps during offensive opera- 
tions. Since this sort of usage is beyond the scope 
of the scale of TRC, I will limit their role to a 
defensive one (similar to the rules for the station- 
ary corps above) for the mobile Flak corps often 
covered an area represented by one hex. Their 
use in the defensive role as a whole corps was 
not only possible, but not unknown historically. 
The mobile Flak corps was often the last line of 
defense against a potential Russian breakthrough. 
All of the rules for stationary Flak corps apply 
to these mobile Flak corps except 1) they do count 
for stacking, and 2) they can move in each im- 
pulse of a turn (being completely motorized). 
There were two such mobile Flak corps sent to 



REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: 



German infantry division: 

German panzergrenadier division: 

German panzer division: 

German mountain division: 

German cavalry division: 

German reserve/training division: 

German Luftwaffe division: 

German parachute division: 

German SS infantry division: 

German SS panzer division: 

German SS panzergrenadier division: 

German SS mountain division: 

German SS cavalry division: 

German artillery division: 

Finnish infantry division: 

Rumanian infantry division: 

Rumanian mountain division: 

Rumanian panzer division: 

Rumanian cavalry division: 

Hungarian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian panzer division: 

Rumanian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian infantry division: 

Hungarian mountain division: 

Hungarian cavalry division: 

Italian infantry division: 

Italian panzergrenadier division: 

German Naval division: 

Russian infantry division: 

Russian cavalry division: 

Russian tank division: 

Russian tank corps: 

Russian mechanized corps: 

Russian artillery corps: 

Guard infantry division: 

Guard cavalry division: 

Guard tank division: 

Guard mechanized /tank corps: 

Guard parachute corps: 



JULY 
1942 


AUG 
1942 


SEPT 

1942 


OCT 
1942 


NOV 

1942 


DEC 
1942 


JAN 
1943 


3 








1 


1 


3 




















1 






1 


1 






1 






























9 






1 










4 


4 


5 




















































1 


























I 


































4 








4 


4 








2 


















1 












1 


1 


1 


























1 
























6 








































2 






3 






1 


1 




























22 


21 


13 


7 


7 


4 


4 


6 






2 


2 




















7 


















3 


3 




















1 


4 


3 


1 




5 


4 


10 




4 


































2 


2 


1 

















28 



REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: 



German infantry division: 

German panzergrenadier division: 

German panzer division: 

German mountain division: 

German cavalry division: 

German reserve/training division: 

German Luftwaffe division: 

German parachute division: 

German SS infantry division: 

German SS panzer division: 

German SS panzergrenadier division: 

German SS mountain division: 

German SS cavalry division: 

German artillery division: 

Finnish infantry division: 

Rumanian infantry division: 

Rumanian mountain division: 

Rumanian panzer division: 

Rumanian cavalry division: 

Hungarian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian panzer division: 

Rumanian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian infantry division: 

Hungarian mountain division: 

Hungarian cavalry division: 

Italian infantry division: 

Italian panzergrenadier division: 

German Naval division: 

Russian infantry division: 

Russian cavalry division: 

Russian tank division: 

Russian tank corps: 

Russian mechanized corps: 

Russian artillery corps: 

Guard infantry division: 

Guard cavalry division: 

Guard tank division: 

Guard mechanized/tank corps: 

Guard parachute corps: 



FES 

1943 


MAR 

1943 


APR 
1943 


MAY 

1943 


JUNE 

1943 


JULY 

1943 


AUG 
1943 


4 


9 


3 


2 


3 




1 
























1 


1 














































1 


1 






















































4 












































































I 
















1 














































































3 


















































































4 


5 


10 


15 


6 


5 


1 


2 






































































3 


12 


14 


3 




3 




3 


2 


1 












1 












2 


1 


2 






2 


1 

















the Russian Front: the 1st in May 1942, and the 
2nd in October 1943, 

Flak corps can never be replaced. [The 
counters for these, while shown here, can be 
found as mounted, die-cut variant counters that 
will appear with Vol 27, No. 4 of The GENERAL. 
Non-subscribers may order these variant counters 
at that time by mail only, specifying "The 
GENERAL, Vol. 27, No. 4" counter sheet and 
enclosing $3.00 (plus usual shipping and 
handling fee) for each set desired.] 

OIL WELLS 

In RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN, the effects of cap- 
tured oil wells is an added bonus for the German 
player in the form of more replacements. Though 
the effects of lack or addition of replacements is 
shown well enough by this "oil-well" rule, it 
does not address or simulate the severe shortage 
of petroleum products which the German forces 
suffered in the last stages of the war. Germany 
had always faced the threat of a shortage of the 
oil products necessary for her forces, even before 
1945. But by a system of strict rationing, and by 
shorting the redundant German Navy, German 
planners were always able to provide enough to 
keep their ground offensives rolling. Only in 1944 
did the situation begin to become critical. By 
1945, the panzer divisions were lucky if they 
could have one full tank of fuel available by the 
time they reached assembly areas for an attack. 

Thus, I have devised the following rule to 
reflect this shortage. The oil-well rules in the 
original game (see 21 .4) relating to replacements 
are ignored when using this variant. Instead, com- 
mencing with the January 1945 turn, all Axis 
mechanized units have their movement factor 
reduced by one. For example, if a German panzer 
corps has a printed movement allowance of "7", 
this will be reduced to "6" in January 1945. 1 
believe this simple rule to be less confusing and 
better representative of the predicament facing 
the German army at the end of the war. 

SOVIET FORCES 

Having discussed the variant system for rein- 
forcements/replacements as it relates to the Axis 
player, we must move on to look at how the system 
affects the Soviet player. As does the German, the 
Russian follows a reinforcement schedule (found 
following the Axis listing on the "Reinforcement 
Schedule"), discarding his original OB card, with 
all new units entering on the east edge of the map- 
board. As before, all At-Start forces are placed 
as shown on that card; and, as with certain 
German forces, the conditional 14th Army from 
Northern Finland will still arrive on-board should 
Helsinki fall. However, due to the Russian organi- 
zation, there are some differences from the Axis 
pattern. 

The Russian Reinforcement Schedule lists not 
only divisions, but some corps-sized units as well. 
These corps reinforcements need not be converted 
to armies, and indeed in some cases (like the 
Guards Parachute corps) cannot form armies. 
Like divisions, however, these corps counters can 
be placed in the Russian "force pool" in reserve 
or can be brought onto the map on the mm they 
are received. The following is the complete list 
of Russian corps units that appear: 

Russian Tank Corps=2-5 
Russian Mechanized Corps =3-5 



29 



Guards Tank Corps =3-5 
Guards Mechanized Corps =3-5 
Guards Parachute Corps =1-2 
Russian Artillery Corps =(2)-3 

These corps-sized units can be converted, in some 
instances, into "Tank Armies". As usual, the 
number of tank armies on board is limited only 
by the countermix; surplus corps may be recorded 
on the "force pool" sheet (or enter play as corps 
if enough counters are available). Table 2 shows 
the requirements to form the various Russian tank 
corps; its use should be self-explanatory. As an 
example, in September 1943 the Russian player 
receives three Guards Mechanized and Tank 
corps. These corps could be entered on board as 
three 3-5s, or placed in the "force pool", or used 
to form a tank army which would then enter the 
map. He could, for instance, use two of these 
corps to form a 6-5 army (and save or put in play 
the remaining corps); or he could use all three 
to form a single 8-6 or 10-7 Guards Tank Army. 

Readers will note that the type of 
Tank/Mechanized corps (Russian or Guards) is 
irrelevant as to the type of army formed. Russian 
Tank armies may be formed from Guards corps, 
and Guards armies may include regular Russian 
corps. During the war it was common to see this 
practice of mixing non-Guards with Guards units 
in higher echelon formations. For this reason, 
complicated rules to limit the composition of the 
Soviet armies as to type are unnecessary. 

So far as the Russian Artillery corps are con- 
cerned, they enter play (or may be held in reserve) 
at the rate of one each year beginning with January 
1943. These arrive without any further conver- 
sion or calculation by the Russian player (that is, 
they do not have to be purchased or constructed 
in any manner), but once lost may not be re- 
placed. During the war, the Soviets fielded dozens 
of artillery divisions, along with independent 
rocket brigades and regiments, and were the 
pioneers in organizing higher-level formations. 
The arrival of these three corps reflects this. 

Russian divisions, like the Axis, are also ex- 
changed for corps and/or armies. Every wargamer 
is quite aware that the Red Army went through 
tremendous expansion and improvement during 
the course of the Russo-German conflict. The 
quality of the Russian divisions in 1941 were not 
as good as those raised and trained and equipped 
later. Unlike the German and Axis units, Russian 
divisions underwent an "upward" transformation. 
In some cases, they surpassed their German 
counterparts. To reflect this, Table 3 offers the 
Soviet Division to SP Exchange Ratio, determined 
by year and whether or not the division has Guard 
status. 

As an example, let's look at the Russian rein- 
forcements which arrive in Nov 1941 . The player 
would receive the following, according to the 
"Reinforcement Schedule"; 24 Russian Infan- 
try divisions, ten Russian Cavalry divisions, two 
Russian tank divisions, two Guards Infantry 
divisions, four Guards Cavalry divisions, two 
Guards Parachute corps. By the table, the ex- 
change ratio into SP for the divisions will be 2; 1 
for the non-Guard and 1.5:1 for the Guard units. 
Thus, the Russian will now have 13 infantry, 
seven cavalry, and one tank SP available (the 
Guards Parachute Corps are not converted). He 
may now convert these to armies and /or corps, 
subject only to the restriction that only divisions 



REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: 



German infantry division: 



German panzergrenadier divi 

German panzer div 

German mountain div: 

German cavalry div 

German reserve/training div 

German Luftwaffe div 

German parachute div 

German SS infantry div 

German SS panzer div 

German SS panzergrenadier div 

German SS mountain div: 

German SS cavalry div 

German artillery div 



sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion; 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 



Finnish infantry division 



Rumanian infantry div 
Rumanian mountain div: 

Rumanian panzer div 

Rumanian cavalry div 

Hungarian panzergrenadier div 

Hungarian panzer div 

Rumanian panzergrenadier div 

Hungarian infantry div 

Hungarian mountain div 

Hungarian cavalry div 

Italian infantry div 

Italian panzergrenadier div 

German Naval div 



sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 
sion: 



Russian infantry division: 

Russian cavalry division: 

Russian tank division: 

Russian tank corps: 

Russian mechanized corps: 

Russian artillery corps: 

Guard infantry division: 

Guard cavalry division: 

Guard tank division: 

Guard mechanized/tank corps: 

Guard parachute corps: 



SEPT 
1943 


OCT 
1943 


NOV 

1943 


DEC 

1943 


JAN 

1944 


FEB 

1944 


MAR 

1944 




1 


3 


5 


2 




1 










1 








2 


2 








































































1 














1 












2 


















1 






















1 


















1 
















4 








1 






2 




1 




2 




















































































1 


2 
















































































4 


2 












































































1 






1 


4 












1 




























3 


3 



























REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: 



German infantry division: 

German panzergrenadier division: 

German panzer division: 

German mountain division: 

German cavalry division: 

German reserve/training division: 

German Luftwaffe division: 

German parachute division: 

German SS infantry division: 

German SS panzer division: 

German SS panzergrenadier division: 

German SS mountain division: 

German SS cavalry division: 

German artillery division: 

Finnish infantry division: 

Rumanian infantry division: 

Rumanian mountain division: 

Rumanian panzer division: 

Rumanian cavalry division: 

Hungarian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian panzer division: 

Rumanian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian infantry division: 

Hungarian mountain division: 

Hungarian cavalry division: 

Italian infantry division: 

Italian panzergrenadier division: 

German Naval division: 

Russian infantry division: 

Russian cavalry division: 

Russian tank division: 

Russian tank corps: 

Russian mechanized corps: 

Russian artillery corps: 

Guard infantry division: 

Guard cavalry division: 

Guard tank division: 

Guard mechanized/tank corps: 

Guard parachute corps: 



APR 
1944 


MAY 
1944 


JUNE 
1944 


JULY 

1944 


AUG 

1944 


SEPT 
1944 


OCT 
1944 


2 


2 




3 


16 


6 


3 










1 




2 








1 


2 




1 






























1 












1 


1 




























1 














2 
























1 


























1 


i 


1 






























14 














2 
















1 












3 




























1 












1 
















11 


1 


1 


1 


3 


7 


5 




















1 








1 




































































































1 


3 


2 


1 




































































1 


1 























of the proper type (infantry, cavalry, armor/ 
mechanized) be used for each higher-level unit. 
Supposing that he did not have any reserve in his 
"force pool", and wanted to form as many 6-3 
infantry armies as possible, one can readily see 
he will bring on two of these counters, perhaps 
saving the Guard divisions for later use. With the 
cavalry, he could form two 3-7s or three 2-7s, 
or a 4-7 and 3-7— or even a single 3-7 and 2-7, 
holding the Guard Cavalry divisions for conver- 
sion to SP until the end of the year. 

Of course, as usual, the Russian player need 
not commit all his reinforcement divisions to the 
mapboard, and may instead retain some or all for 
possible future emergencies and opportunities. 
The strategy behind placing Soviet divisions into 
the force pool should be obvious: to await better 
exchange ratios to come into effect in order to 
raise more on-board units. For example, if the 
Soviet player were to hold over in his force pool 
40 Russian Infantry divisions from 1942 until 
1943, they would in effect double in the SP they 
represent. Whereas in 1942, these 40 divisions 
could only be traded for 20 infantry SP, in 
January 1943 they could be exchanged for 40 in- 
fantry SP! We can rationalize this if we think of 
these 40 divisions undergoing longer training and 
equipping. When to convert and when to save 
reinforcing Russian/Guard divisions is a question 
of strategic import for the Russian player now. 

A disgruntled German player may think these 
Soviet exchange ratios tend to favor the oppos- 
ing player. Take my word for it, extensive play- 
testing of this variant over the past couple of years 
have shown that the ratios do not give the Russian 
an advantage. Instead, they seem to balance the 
game to a fine point. Note that the German player 
receives a steady stream of reinforcements, even 
towards the end of the game, while the Russian 
reinforcements dwindle to almost nothing by the 
end of 1943. Historically, this appears to have 
been the case. And in this variant, it means that 
for either player to win he must use the reinforce- 
ments to best advantage, and overcome the ad- 
vantages the schedule offers to his opponent. For 
the last eight turns of the game, the Russian player 
must make do with virtually no reinforcements 
(encouraging him to stockpile reserves in his 
force pool for this period), while the German con- 
tinues to receive a substantial amount (albeit, of 
questionable quality). 

Too, the Russian player will sustain losses 
from his force pool during this endgame due to 
the accumulating effects of destroyed Worker 
units. Which brings us to the last important 
variant system in this design: the effects of 
Worker units. 

RUSSIAN WORKERS 

The effects that destroyed Russian "Worker" 
units have on the Russian force pool is all im- 
portant. The more Worker units destroyed by the 
Axis, the greater the number of Russian rein- 
forcement divisions that will be lost to the player. 
Given the 1 1 Worker SP already on the game- 
board at start (plus their theoretical accumulation 
from turn to turn) and adding the newly arriving 
Worker 1-SP units, 1 calculated a total theoretical 
number of possible replacement points (Rule 
22.4) which the Russian could get throughout the 
game. I did indeed, to halt any protests, take into 
account the "doubling" effect in May 1943 



3! 



(22.7). For the period from June 1941 through 
May 1945, the total number of possible Soviet 
replacement points is 1479 SP. There are a total 
of 769 Soviet SP that arrive during that same 
period in the game. Thus, this means that, 
roughly, there is a ratio of two Russian replace- 
ment SP for every combat SP that appears on- 
board during TRC. Although somewhat a 
simplification, for this variant every two Worker- 
generated replacement points accounts for one 
Russian combat SP, 

As in RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN, destroyed 
Worker units reduce the number of Russian 
replacements (which here are part of the "Rein- 
forcement Schedule"). As in the original design, 
this effect is cumulative from mm to turn. 
Further, if at any time the Russian player does 
not receive enough reinforcements to cover 
demanded deductions, the balance must be made 
up from either his force pool (divisions planned 
but unable to be equipped due to shortages) or, 
as a last resort, from on-board forces (units 
unable to be refitted). While simple in concept, 
it is difficult to explain. 

So, let's take this one step further, and show 
how the loss of a single Russian worker unit 
might affect the Russian replacement rate in the 
variant. Let us assume that by April 1943, the 
German player has destroyed or captured five 
points of Workers. In May 1943, you are due to 
receive 15 Russian Infantry divisions and three 
Guards Infantry divisions. Before you can use 
these incoming reinforcements, you will be 
forced to deduct some to reflect the lowered 
capabilities of Soviet industry. Notice that it is 
May 1943, so the five destroyed Worker points 
must be doubled and are now worth ten. Given 
the 2-for-l ratio determined in the paragraph 
above, in this variant system you are obliged to 
"lose" five of your arriving 18 divisions. Before 
this is done, however, since it is after January 
1942 you may elect to roll for the Archangel 
supplement (replacing the effect of 22.6). Let's 
assume you roll a "4" on the die; immediately 
that number is subtracted from the ten missing 
Worker points. Always round up the final value 
received after all calculations. Last step is to 
remove enough divisions to equal the remaining 
(six) destroyed Worker points. Since each com- 
bat SP is equal to two destroyed Worker SP, this 
means that the Russian player— you — would elect 
to remove a total of three divisions (again, round 
up if a fractional result applies). 

This example explains much clearer than any 
convoluted rules how we replace Rule 22. The 
Russian player decides which divisions arriving 
as reinforcements he will lose. He instead has the 
option of removing these "lost" divisions from 
his force pool . But only if the Russian player does 
not have enough arriving divisions or divisions 
in his force pool can these losses be deducted right 
off the mapboard from Russian counters already 
in place. In this case only, Russian losses are 
taken in terms of straight strength points. 

For example, if he had to incur the three-point 
loss described above from his units on the game 
board, he would first look to Table 3 to deter- 
mine the exchange rate at the time of this action. 
For our example, it is May 1943, and the ex- 
change is 1:1 for both Guard and non-Guard 
units. This being the case, the Russian player 
could simply remove three SP from the map- 



REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE: 



German infantry division: 

German panzergrenadier division: 

German panzer division: 

German mountain division: 

German cavalry division: 

German reserve/training division: 

German Luftwaffe division: 

German parachute division: 

German SS infantry division: 

German SS panzer division: 

German SS panzergrenadier division: 

German SS mountain division: 

German SS cavalry division: 

German artillery division: 

Finnish infantry division: 

Rumanian infantry division: 

Rumanian mountain division: 

Rumanian panzer division: 

Rumanian cavalry division: 

Hungarian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian panzer division: 

Rumanian panzergrenadier division: 

Hungarian infantry division: 

Hungarian mountain division: 

Hungarian cavalry division: 

Italian infantry division: 

Italian panzergrenadier division: 

German Naval division: 

Russian infantry division: 

Russian cavalry division: 

Russian tank division: 

Russian tank corps: 

Russian mechanized corps: 

Russian artillery corps: 

Guard infantry division: 

Guard cavalry division: 

Guard tank division: 

Guard mechanized /tank corps: 

Guard parachute corps: 



NOV 

1944 


DEC 

1944 


JAN 

1945 


FEB 
1945 


MAR 
1945 


APR 
1945 


2 


2 


6 


7 


3 


3 




2 


1 


4 


2 




1 






6 


1 








1 
















2 














5 






















1 


1 








2 


3 


2 








5 






1 
















1 
















1 




























































































1 




















2 


1 


3 


1 




























































2 


1 


1 


































































1 


















































1 



















32 



board. A Russian 3-7 Cavalry corps is one 
example of an efficient removal. Units to be re- 
moved under this condition must be currently in 
supply, but need not be out of enemy ZOC. If 
he has no way in which to remove exactly three 
SP, the Russian player may satisfy the loss by 
removing more — a unit with a higher strength 
value (say, a 4-3 Infantry army). In effect, he 
must remove at least the number of SP demanded, 
but may be forced to remove more. Type of unit 
is not a factor in this removal. 

I must emphasize that only if the Russian 
player is unable to meet his obligation from 
arriving reinforcements or the accumulated force 
pool, must he take these Worker "losses" from 
on-board units. Besides, it is usually to his 
advantage to sacrifice arriving reinforcements or 
stored reserves that disrupt your on-board posi- 
tion. A wise strategy for the Russian player is 
to try to maintain 15-20 infantry divisions in the 
force pool to deal with such losses as a result of 
destroyed Worker units. (And, of course, try to 
protect your valuable Worker counters onboard). 

A few final points about the Worker units. 
The new I-SP and 2-SP Worker units enter play 
on the same schedule and in the same manner as 
in the original design. Simply take these along 
with normal Soviet reinforcement divisions/corps 
each month. They may not be held in reserve and 
must arrive on the map (exception, see "Siberia" 
reference below). 

During the war, Russia undertook supreme 
efforts to relocate factories which were threatened 
by advancing Axis forces. These efforts included 
not only the transfer of skilled workers, but the 
transport of ail the heavy machinery and stocks, 
bolt-for-bolt and nail-for-nail in some instances. 
This effort was limited only by the rail capacity 
available, and at times took priority over even 
troop movements. As a result, I decided to allow 
the Russian player to move as many Worker 
points by rail as he desires, up to the maximum 
of five (9.1), These may be shifted, as per the 
rail movement rules, anywhere; but all rules for 
Worker units still apply. The Russian player may 
move a total of three Worker points off-board in 
Siberia (or keep newly-arriving ones there, but 
no more than a total of three may ever be off- 
board); these may be moved back onboard by rail 
at any later time. 

Worker units whose points equal two or three 
can be split up into smaller 1-SP Worker units 
(an extra set of counters may be necessary if you 
plan to exercise this option). The benefit of divid- 
ing up large Worker units into small ones should 
be obvious; the Russian player will be able to 
spread them out, reducing the chances of suffer- 
ing a crippling blow to his reinforcement sched- 
ule all at once. Such splitting takes place at the 
start of any Russian movement phase{s) desired; 
however, the restriction upon Worker units in all 
cities remains in effect (22.3), and the Russian 
player may be forced to rail move some of these 
new 1-SP units to other locations. Every nation 
in the war attempted to disperse its armament in- 
dustry over as wide an area as possible; allow- 
ing the Russian to "breakdown" and "spread" 
his Worker units realistically portrays this 
strategy. 

STRATEGY IN THE VARIANT 

Finally, I would like to spend a little time 



speaking of Axis and Soviet strategy in light of 
this variant approach to the TRC system of rein- 
forcements/ replacements . 

As in the original, the Axis player must 
endeavor to destroy the Worker counters. Since 
the victory conditions remain the same, this is 
but a means to an end— but it is a very important 
"means". And forget about the oil fields in 
Russia; this may have had an important niche in 
Hitler's mind, but its effect on the game is 
limited. You'll have ample reason to go sweep- 
ing through the Caucasuses when the Russian 
player moves his Worker units down south. 

As in the original version, the capture of 
Moscow is of paramount importance. Its fall will 
cut the rail net for the enemy, effectively form- 
ing two Russian fronts, disconnected from one 
another. You can then follow Napoleon's maxim 
of destroying one while holding the other at bay 
with "minor" forces. 

Li genera], the German player wants to attack 
Russia with everything he's got in 1941 and 1942. 
With the steady stream of reinforcements, you 
can even risk your Panzer and Panzergrenadicr 
corps in the initial assaults in low-odds attacks. 
And, the German player receives so many infan- 
try reinforcements that he should attempt to 
garner as many "Exchange" results as possible 
in order to thin out the on-board enemy forces 
in 1941 and 1942. Due to the poor division-to- 
SP exchange ratio during these years, the Russian 
player will be facing several tough decisions. He 
can indeed replace many of his losses, but at the 
cost of trying to save for the better exchange rate 
in 1943 and at the risk of losses among his 
Worker units crippling later reinforcements. He 
may well "thin" his frontlines to the point where 
a few crucial "EX" results could tear a hole in 
his lines that he will not be able to stabilize for 
a couple of turns. 

If by 1943 you have destroyed a geodly 
number of Worker units, yet have not won the 
game outright (and likely this will be the case 
against an accomplished TRC opponent), don't 
be discouraged. The great mass enlistments in the 
Red Army are past, and if you have done your 
job, the Russian player should not have ample 
reinforcements or reserves to sustain any large 
scale offensive to reach Berlin by game's end. 
A draw is better than a loss in my book (and I'm 
sure the OKW would have agreed). 

Russian strategy when using this variant is 
slightly different than in the usual game. First of 
all, he should try to keep a sizeable portion of 
his 1942 reinforcements in his force pool until 
[943 (he will likely need every one, and then 
some, in 1941 to slow the German advance) in 
order to take advantage of the better exchange 
ratio. This means that he will be looking to slow 
and hold the German advance with the minimum 
of troops. This is a tough balancing act, and will 
demand some experience in play of the variant 
before sound strategies are discovered (I too hold 
that the Soviet is the harder side to play in TRC). 
He should forget about any wholesale counter- 
attacks during those two years, unless absolutely 
necessary, even during the first winter. On the 
other hand, a massive buildup of reserves in the 
force pool during 1942 can threaten the German 
with a sudden influx of a large number of high- 
quality Russian units, ready to launch an awe- 
some counterattack at any point. But the neces- 



sity of railing these to the front will usually give 
the enemy some warning— however slight. 

The Russian player should look to transfer his 
Worker units that start at Kiev, Kharkov, Stalino 
and Moscow as soon as possible, even if this 
means that Russian reinforcements and units must 
"hoof it to the front lines. If he allows the 
German player to destroy them, the effects will 
be permanent and those divisional losses will be 
incurred for the rest of the game every turn. This 
is another one of those agonizing decisions the 
Russian player faces, and gives an appreciation 
for what Soviet Russia managed to accomplish 
during the war. 

If the Russian player has survived the game 
through 1943 with a minimum of Worker losses 
and a fair-sized reserve in the force pool, he must 
immediately go over to the offensive (I feel), 
regardless of the odds. Forget about trying to get 
sure-fire results in a few places with high odds. 
Instead, concentrate on attacking everywhere that 
is vulnerable, even if this means accepting low 
odds. The German player receives too many rein- 
forcements for a one- or two-hex hole in his lines 
to trouble him. But rupture his front in several 
spots at once — even with "EX" results — with 
armor waiting to exploit in the second impulse, 
and you will be rewarded by watching the entire 
front roll west (as it did historically at irregular 
intervals). Cause as many casualties as possible 
to overload the German reinforcement schedule, 
his sole advantage in the latter stages of the game. 

The Russian player, in this war of attrition, 
should concentrate his efforts against the German 
units; the lesser Axis units should be of secondary 
importance unless in a vital objective. Forget 
about attacking Italian units, unless they happen 
to be in your way; they will be gone soon enough. 
Don't bother with the Finns, that's a secondary 
theater and brings you no closer to the victory 
conditions. Avoid attacking the Rumanians after 
1943; you may well have control of them soon, 
and might as well have as many as possible, But, 
do concentrate on destroying the Hungarian 
Army; since it will never surrender, you should 
try to overload its reinforcement schedule. 

For the Russian player, three precepts govern 
my strategy: attack everywhere possible, begin- 
ning in 1943; concentrate on destroying German 
units first, Hungarian second; don't waste your 
time and units on attacks against the Finns, 
Italians and Rumanians. 

CONCLUSION 

Where not changed in the above, the original 
RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN rules apply. In effect, 
most readers will note that the changes in this 
variant concentrate upon revising the method that 
reinforcements/replacements are handled. No 
more rigid (and anticipated) arrivals and depar- 
tures (ignore all unit withdrawals that are called 
for in these, for this has already been factored 
into the Reinforcement Schedule). Now both 
players face some unexpected surprises, as his 
wily opponent suddenly deposits many new 
corps/armies on his mapboard edge and rails them 
to the front— units for which the enemy has been 
stockpiling reinforcing divisions for some turns. 
The strategic concerns of receiving and organiz- 
ing, holding and dispatching, reinforcements be- 
comes a "game within a game." . 



33 



AREA TOP 50 LIST 

Times Previous 
Rank Name On List Rating Rank 


1. K. Combs 

2. D. Burdick 

3. J. Kreuz 

4. B. Sinigaglio 

5. P. Flory 


74 
73 
1 
59 
50 


2577YOW 

2315HHQ 

2197IGR 

2I79GD 

2109EHL 


2 

3 
6 


6. D. Barker 

7. P. Siragusa 

8. I. Noel 

9. P. Landiy 
E D. Mattsan 


1 
68 

27 
48 
16 


2084GHN 

2079HL 

207SEEK 

2054IIO 

2050MKY 


7 
5 
8 
9 


11. L. Barlow 

12. E. O'Connor 

13. T. Deane 
M. C. Cora 
15. S. Sutton 


21 
33 
26 

13 
40 


2037DLW 
2033GIO 
2029GCC 

2017 FE A 
2016GHO 


11 
17 
10 
12 
13 


16. R. Beyma 

17. J. Bjorum 

18. D. Garbutt 

19. B Remsburg 

20. M. Sbicavage 


49 
8 

72 
57 

1 


20I4DDG 
2010DGK 
2006HJQ 
2005HJR 
1984FFJ 


14 
25 
15 
16 


21. D. Greenwood 

22. R. Berger 
21 J. Spontak 

24. J. Eliason 

25. R. Shurdut 


9 
14 
18 
22 
19 


1983IFL 

1964DEF 

1963DCE 

1960GIO 

I951GHM 


22 
18 

19 
20 

21 


26. D. Kopp 

27. H. Newby 
2a F. Reese 

29. M. Frisk 

30, P. DeVblpe 


19 

39 
54 

28 
11 


1932GJP 

1923VKQ 

1917JDJ 

1914DFJ 

1892DFF 


23 

24 
26 
27 
29 


31. B. Schoose 

32. M. Crowe 
31 K. McCarthy 
34. M. Mitchell 
35 J. Ingersoll 


13 

2 

28 

il 
1 


1S9IGIM 

1890CCH 

I882DFZ 

1880GHN 

1880CFH 


30 
31 
32 
33 

28 
34 
35 
40 
38 


36 T. OlesoiJ 

37. J. Campbell 

38. F. Preissle 

39. E. Alexis 
40 E. Miller 


83 
11 

71 

5 

21 


18782ZZ 
I875FED 
1850MOZ 
1850ILT 
1812 HKR 


41. K. Kinsel 

42. W, Scotl 

43. M. Cox 

44. J. Lute 

45. P. McNevin 


7 
71 

9 
S 

3 


1806HHL 
1790MKW 

I790GEB 
178SHGQ 
1783GIP 


42 
41 
37 
36 
44 


46. M. Gurtrcund 5 1781EFK 

47. C.Clemens 1 1774GJO 

48. R. CosteUo 14 1774CEH 

49. R.Cox 1 1769YLN 
5tt A.Lipka 6 1754GGN 

TRC RANKING 

Replacing the "Meet the Fifty" section of ou 
report will be the AREA Specific listings for a sel 
each issue (in this instance, THE RUSSIAN CAM. 
Shown is the member's name, his hometown 
Specific rating {V=verificd; P= provisional). I 
this does not match the general AREA rating 
Specific AREA reflects only the results of rate* 
the tide indicated. 

Rank Name Hometown 


39 

43 
45 

rS 

r AREA 
set game 
PAIGN). 

and his 
fate that 

for the 
i play of 

Rating 

V2030 
P1900 


1. J. Bjonim 

2. T. Greene 

3. C. Clemens 

4. C. Sorbello 


Corpus 
Monist 
Panorarj 
Denton 


Christi, TX 

own, TN 


na City. CA 
TX 


P1845 
P1800 


5. J. Eliason 

6. L. Earhart 

7. J. Jenkins 

8. H. Lowood 


Metuch 
Conroe 
Riversit 
San Brt] 


;n, NJ 

TX 


P1590 
P1585 


le, RI 
no, CA 


PI 5 85 
P1575 


9. E. O'Connor 
10. G. Dayton 


New Milford, NJ 

Champaign, IL 


P1570 
P1540 


(1. J. Allen 
12. T. Oleson 


Capistrano, CA 
Brotnma, Sweden 


P15O0 
P1500 


13. R. Buchanan 

14. R. Cole 


Charlotte, NC 
Peari Harbor, HI 


P1500 
P1500 


15. R. Beyma 

16. S. Surland 


Pocomoke City, MD 
Drammen, Norway 


P150Q 
P1310 




mm 



VARIATIONS TO OLD FAVORITES 



Over the years it has been proven to me time 
and again that the old adage stating you can never 
go back is particularly applicable to wargames. 
Second editions inevitably draw criticism from 
those who hate to see anyone tampering with their 
favorites, thereby relegating the original to a 
lesser stature in the ever-changing hierarchy of 
what is currently popular. Whether this resent- 
ment stems from pique at their loss of effort in 
gaining expertise in a system whose popularity 
is fading beneath the press of newer games, or 
a genuine belief that it's all part of a plot to sell 
them the same game again, I cannot say. 
However, I do know that such reluctance to adopt 
follow-up editions is commonplace. It is the rare 
gaming convention that I attend that someone 
doesn't make a point of seeking me out and 
stating his preference for the original SQUAD 
LEADER over ASL. I never argue with them. To 
each his own. As for me, I'll take the new 
improved version any day. 

This long-winded introduction is my way of 
pointing out that I don't particularly care for 
doing revisions of published games. Not only are 
the sales limited to those who bought the original 
game, but you also have to overcome the resent- 
ment of those who liked the first version as it was. 
And then there is always that attitude, "Well, if 
you didn't do it right in the first place, you had 
no business publishing it. I'll expect a free copy 
of the update as errata for my prior purchase." 
Such sentiments have always led me to look on 
game revisions as losing propositions. And that, 
plus the recurring nightmares of my first and 
worst rulebook struggle, has caused me to con- 
stantly reject any notion of doing yet another 
edition of THIRD REICH. 

Until Bruce Harper came along. Bruce, for 
those of you who don't know, is the designer of 
our WRASSLIN' game. Linking the designer of 
that simple, elegant, delightful little gem to a redo 
of something as complicated as THIRD REICH 
is almost inconceivable to me. Yet, Bruce 's true 
gaming love has always been THIRD REICH and 
he has been fashioning his own deluxe version 
of the game in organized correspondence with 
other enthusiasts as an incredible labor of love 
for the past six years. The result is Advanced 
THIRD REICH, and this is what you can expect 
if you brave the most detailed rulebook yet: 

Diplomacy is fully integrated into play of the 
game, thereby increasing the strategic flexibility 
of the design. Russian and U.S. entry is con- 
tingent upon diplomatic developments. Minor 
countries activate as minor allies and surrender, 
depending upon military and diplomatic events, 
as well as diplomatic pressure from major 
powers. 

The combat rules have been expanded to in- 
clude limited offensive operations during Attri- 



tion options, more realistic air/naval combat, and 
the capability to intercept all naval activity, in- 
cluding supply and strategic redeployment. Stra- 
tegic Warfare has been expanded to incorporate 
the Battle of Britain and the effects of German 
raiders. 

Economic rules permit greater Russian 
growth through the expansion of Industrial 
Centers, which appear on the board and arc vul- 
nerable to Axis attack. The U.S. economy grows 
steadily throughout the game, reducing the im- 
pact of American entry in 1942 , but realistically 
portraying the dominant impact of U.S. partici- 
pation in the end game. The list of variant events 
have been expanded to 25 for each side and now 
include such esoteric items as German air sup- 
ply, V-weapons, British commandos, and the 
atomic bomb. 

At 64 pages (plus appendices), Advanced 
THIRD REICH is not for the rules weary . If you 
were one of those who appreciated basic SQUAD 
LEADER more than ASL, you'll probably want 
to pass on A3R. On the other hand, if you thrive 
on detail, you may join the enraptured ranks of 
Bruce 's pi ay testers who proclaim it the greatest 
game ever. The current edition of THIRD REICH 
will continue as the main game. Advanced THIRD 
REICH, due to its greater complexity, will be 
offered only as a separate item requiring the 
original map and counters of the original game 
on which it is based. 

The variations don't stop there. Bruce has also 
improved on another old favorite and his Ad- 
vanced CIVILIZATION is an offering I personally 
find more appeal ling. To me, CIVILIZATION 
always had two major flaws. The first was its 
immense length, and the second was the amount 
of foreknowledge you needed to make intelligent 
purchases of Civilization card combinations 
without fear of painting yourself into a corner 
when the necessary cards to advance further were 
purchased by other players. Advanced CIVILI- 
ZATION solves both problems neatly, by mak- 
ing all Civilization cards obtainable to every 
player by providing a set of eight of each type. 
You can no longer be shut out of a particular 
attribute because someone else beat you to it. 
Doubtless, there will be purists who consider this 
outright sacrilege, but to me it is a great im- 
provement. 

This item also comes in a 64-page magazine, 
but only eight pages are rules (and most of those 
are repeated from the first edition). The re- 
mainder is devoted to a wealth of easy-reading, 
informative articles with extensive discussion and 
analysis of the new game— including an "Empire" 
variant wherein one player can overcome the 
checks and balances of the basic game and dupli- 

Continued on Page 49, Column 3 



34 




P H Hap®nd' fa 





The Ultimate Wargame... 

ADVANCED SQUAD LEADER 

Complexity Rating— 10 Playing Time— 1 hour and up 

Our crowning achievement. There will never be another simulation 
that can match its combination of beauty, detail and excitement. 
ASL is a complete game system whereby a player can simulate 
any WWII action on the company or battalion level. Each module 
contains eight or more carefully balanced scenarios, but players 
can also "design their own" scenarios 
using any of the three dozen geomorphic 
boards, copious Designer's Notes and 
thousands of pieces depicting virtually 
every vehicle, gun and troop type to see 
action In the war. ASL Rulebook $45.00 



ASL MODULES... 

[Note: Ownership of the ASL Rulebook 
is required for all.] 

PARATROOPER— A special introductory 
module based on the U.S. airborne land- 
ings in Normandy with one mapboard and 
just enough pieces to play the eight 
simple scenarios enclosed. It contains 
Chapter K — a humorously-written Training 
course to help new players understand 
the system. Ownership of Mapboards 
1 thru 4 is required. $19.00 

BEYOND VALOR— The complete German 
and Russian Orders of Battle are featured 

in this ten-scenario, four-mapboard pack- 
age of street fighting on the Eastern 
Front. $40.00 

PARTISAN!— This module adds the infantry 
and support weapons of the Axis Minor 
nations, and contains two mapboards and 
eight scenarios depicting engagements 
fought by the Resistance forces of several 
different countries. Ownership of Beyond 
Valor is required. $19.00 

YANKS — The entire U.S. Army makes its 
appearance here complete with no less 
than 17 variations of the Sherman tank in 
eight scenarios and four more geomorphic 
mapboards. It also contains Chapter E — 
a compendium of optional rules depicting 
night actions, river crossings, air landings 
and air power. Ownership of Beyond Valor 
is required. $36.00 

THE LAST HURRAH— Involves the minor 

nations' participation in their defense 
against the German blitzkrieg. 1939-40. 
Adds the infantry and support weapons of 
the Minor Allies. Ownership of Beyond 
Valor and Yanks is required. $1 8.00 

WEST OF ALAME1N— The British addition 
to the ASL system, includes 5 separate 




|HDLIOW| 

C LEGIONS! 



■SffiSffiESt? 



mounted mapboards of the North African 
desert; 8 additional Scenarios, ASL 
Chapter F, and unique Terrain Overlays to 
provide endless topographical variety. 
Ownership of Beyond Valor and Yanks 
is required. $49.00 

HOLLOW LEGIONS— Includes the Italian 
forces in numerous scenarios re-creating 
their travails in both the European and North 
African theatres. Ownership of Beyond Valor, 
Yanks. West Of Alamein and mapboards 
4, 7, & 12 is required. $25.00 

CODE OF BUSH I DO— Presenting the entire 
Japanese order of battle from the 
1930s to 1945. You get 4 new mapboards, 
new terrain overlays, and the first 
installment of Chapter G. Required: 
Beyond Valor, Yanks and West of 
Alamein. $40.00 

RED BARRICADES— The first historical 
module; play centers on the fighting 
within the city of Stalingrad. Ownership of 
Beyond Valor and Yanks required. $25.00 

STREETS OF FIRE— This is a DELUXE 
ASL module featuring four of the large 
geomorphic boards with 2,2* hexes 




for ten urban firefights in Russia. AFV 
playing aid cards are also provided for 
most of the major Russian and German 
vehicles. Ownership of Beyond Valor 
is required. $20.00 

HEDGEROW HELL— DELUXE ASL goes 

rural with four more of the larger 
mapboards, U.S. AFV cards, information 
markers and eight scenarios depicting 
the bocage of Normandy. Ownership of 
Beyond Valor and Yanks is required. $20.00 

ASL GAP — A Computer Assist Program 
gliding players effortlessly past the myriad 
of ASL Rules. Resolves all die-rolls; 
prompts players not to forget important 
functions. Not a complete game; owner- 
ship of ASL and a module required. For 
the Apple II family. $25.00 

ASL ANNUAL '89, '90, '91— The ANNUAL 
is a 64 page, full-color magazine devoted 
exclusively to play of SQUAD LEADER, 
ASL and its many modules Each issue 
contains nearly 20 new scenarios, plus 
other material dedicated solely to this 
game system. $12.00 each 



Prices subject to change without notification 
Available at your favorite game store, or direct from: 

The Avalon Hill Game Company 

DIVISION OF MONARCH AVALON. INC. 

4517 Harford Road * Baltimore, MD 21214 
For quick credit card purchasing, cad TOLL FREE 1-800-999 3222 



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ALPINE HUNTERS 

Reference Notes for ASL 

By Steven C. Swann 



Wars prior to the 20th Century were primarily 
decided by actions during the "civilized" weather 
seasons of spring, summer and early autumn. 
Until the Late 1800s, most countries with moun- 
tainous borders could depend on small militia 
units armed with rifles and an intimate knowledge 
of the local mountains to defend the passes that 
would lead any invader into their homeland. 
These small units may not have been able to halt 
an enemy, but they could delay him to give 
regular forces time to prepare to meet that enemy. 
As the world approached our "modern age", the 
development of railroads and highways began the 
erosion of this military concept. With these means 
of transportation, the mountain militia formations 
no longer had the muscle to prevent — or slow — 
an invasion through the passes they were charged 
with defending. But this imbalance was tilted 
again with the advent of the machinegun and 
light-weight automatic weapons and explosives. 

With the weaponry available in the early 
decades of the 1900s, most of the nations that 
bordered the Alps again faced the need for mili- 
tary units specially trained for combat in the high 
regions. France formed their Chasseurs Alpins, 
Italy their Alpim, and Germany and Austria their 
Gebirgsjaegers ("Alpine Hunter") battalions. At 
first, these were company- or battalion-sized for- 
mations that could operate independent of higher 
echelon organizations. They tended to be 
equipped with the latest of light weaponry and 
gear suited (occasionally specially designed, or 
adapted from existing civilian examples) to the 
terrain and climate. 

In August 1914. war came again, but initially 
there was little call for any of the mountain troops 
by the major combatants, who were more con- 
cerned with the movement of massive armies in 
the flat areas of Flanders and rolling hills of 
Poland. In 1915, Italy declared war on the Central 
Powers, which brought the unexpected need for 
the defense of the southern borders of Austria- 
Hungary. But the small Austrian jager units were 
no match for the larger Italian Alpini ones lead- 
ing the invasion. Austria was forced to commit 
more of her troops to the southern alps, and soon 
much of the Austrian reserve was tied up in the 
defense of the mountainous frontier. 

This attack led to the dismissal of most mili- 
tary theories that had governed the movement and 
actions of large bodies of troops through the 
mountains. It was found that, contrary to expec- 
tations, not all military units involved had to be 
mountain-trained in order to fight effectively in 



the high regions. What was required were enough 
trained units to act as guides and assault troops. 
Many served as teachers, for simply making most 
any experienced soldier aware of the dangers and 
difficulties of alpine combat allowed any small 
military unit to operate in the mountains, if it had 
a detachment of alpine troops to help. 

At the start of World War I, Germany had 
only a few battalions of jaegers trained and 
equipped for mountain operations. During the 
battles in the Vosges, the Imperial German Army 
found its men outclassed and outfought by the 
French Qmsseurs Alpins. With Italy's subsequent 
entry, the high command was forced to re- 
evaluate its methods, and so began the raising of 
its first Gebirgsjaeger battalions to replace the 
mountain militia. The bulk of the men for these 
new units came from the German kingdoms of 
Bavaria and Wumemburg, both of which already 
had alpine units in their state armies composed 
of those born and raised in the Alps. They were 
skilled in survival, climbing, skiing and hunting 
in the thin air and high reaches. 

By March 1915, these alpine units had been 
removed from state control and incorporated into 
the Imperial German Army . The first German 
alpine corps was composed of two brigades: No. 
1 with the Bavarian Lieb Regiment and Bavarian 
Jaeger Battalions; and No. 2 with the Bavarian 
Ski Battalion, the Hanover Jagers and the Meck- 
lenburg Jager Battalion. Seven artillery batteries, 
engineers, signals and trench mortar units were 
added to provide the corps with its own support 
elements. The personnel of all units were ex- 
perienced mountaineers, and most had already 
gained some combat experience in France. 

For the duration of the fighting, the "Alpine" 
Corps would prove itself to be a superb fighting 
unit. That it was able to achieve much is shown 
by the fact that the corps was moved to so many 
theaters of the war — wherever the need for an 
aggressive, elite unit was noted. The German 
Alpine Corps fought first in the Tyrol, then the 
Macedonia area. The fighting abilities of its men 
were so highly thought of that they were next sent 
to Verdun (1916) and used as assault troops. 
Rumania was the next assignment, and then back 
to the Vosges mountains in France in 1917. Later 
they would be part of the German offensive at 
Caporetto (Italy), and then at Mount Kemmel for 
the 1918 spring offensive. From here the corps 
was moved to Serbia, and then to the eastern front 
where it served until mid-1919. 



Between the wars, the army of the Weimar 
Republic retained the tradition of the alpine corps 
in three small units stationed in Bavaria. In 1935, 
with Hider in power, the Wehrmacht entered a 
stage of great expansion. This was the year that 
universal conscription was reintroduced in Ger- 
many. All inductees were required to serve a 
period of time in the military unless they were 
judged disabled or unfit. With this influx of men, 
the three small Gebirgsjaeger battalions were 
enlarged first to a brigade, then a division. This 
first division was designated the 1st Gebirgsjaeger 
Division and included the 98th, 99th and 100th 
Gebirgsjaeger Regiments, with support provided 
by the 79th Mountain Artillery Regiment. Others 
soon followed. 

All the mountain divisions were established 
using the same TO&E. Each was composed of 
an HQ, sundry support units, an artillery regi- 
ment and two infantry regiments that together 
totaled 13056 officers and men. The HQ would 
include the divisional staff officers, HQ company, 
a motorized map reproduction office, a semi- 
motorized signals battalion, service formations, 
and a field replacement battalion. For the sake 
of our discussion here, all units described are 
based on the 1943 soil establishment. (A "soil" 
was the official establishment that would be used 
to represent any unit up to strength and fully- 
equipped with all support weapons.) Of course, 
due to the massive losses from 1941-43 in the 
east, very few formations of any kind were at this 
level. 

The support units of a Gebirgsjaeger division 
included a motorized traffic control detachment, 
a mountain AT battalion, a Hochgebirgs ("high 
alpine") battalion, and semi-motorized reconnais- 
sance and engineer battalions. The divisional AT 
company was outfitted with 25 50mm AT guns. 
Each Hochgebirgs battalion was composed of an 
HQ section, five rifle companies, and a "tech- 
nical" company with engineer platoon, signals 
platoon and light howitzer platoon. 

The mountain artillery regiment (2330 of all 
ranks) included the HQ battery of a pack train 
detachment and a radio platoon, a pack train sup- 
ply column, and three battalions of artillery. 
Three batteries made up the firing elements of 
each artillery battalion. In each regiment, two of 
the battalions were semi- motorized and one 
horse-towed or mule-packed. There were to be 
one battalion each of 12 150mm howitzers, 12 
I05mm howitzers, and 24 75mm howitzers. 



36 



The regular Gebirgsjaeger regiment of 3064 
officers and men was made up of an HQ and three 
battalions. The HQ had the staff, signals platoon 
and a heavy howitzer (two 105mm pack howitzers) 
platoon as the artillery complement. A Gebirgs- 
jaeger battalion of 877 each had, besides the HQ 
staff, five companies, of which three were jaeger 
(rifle) companies. The battalion's technical com- 
pany encompassed the signals, engineers, light 
howitzer platoon (two 75mm howitzers) and an 
AT company (37mm guns and ATRs). Each 
jaeger company of 147 men was further divided 
into three rifle platoons and a weapons platoon 
equipped with two 81mm mortars and an AT rifle 
squad. Each jaeger platoon was equipped with 
three LMG and one 50mm mortars for support. 

Divisional transport was provided by 477 
motorcycles, 858 trucks of various sizes, 714 
horse-drawn wagons and carts (with some 3506 
horses and mules). Supply columns were 
organized into supply trains made up of 200 
animals. During the winter and muddy months 
on the Russian front, the normal transport was 
supplemented by the acquisition of Panje carts, 
Russian sleds and native horses suitable for the 
terrain and weather. In Lapland the carts and 
sleds were pulled by reindeer, while in the 
Caucasus region the 1st and 4th Gebirgsjaeger 
Divisions used the Bactrian camel for transport 
at times. In short, while the most favored vehicles 
were the Volkswagen (in its various forms) and 
Kettenkrad, the alpine troops were quite able to 
adapt local transport methods to their style of 
warfare. 

In 1938, Austria was annexed, and with it 
came two Austrian alpine divisions. The German 
Army now had three full divisions trained to oper- 
ate in mountain conditions. The 2nd Gebirgs- 
jaeger Division was formed from the former 
Austrian 6th Infantry Division, and included the 
136th and 137th Gebirgsjaeger Regiments and the 
1 1th Gebirgsjaeger Artillery Regiment, The 3rd 
Gebirgsjaeger Division had its beginnings with 
select elements of the Austrian 5th and 7th 
divisions, which were formed into the 138th and 
139th Gebirgsjaeger Regiments and 12th Gebirgs- 
jaeger Artillery Regiment. Both conformed to the 
TO&E of the original German formation. 

Together, these three divisions were formed 
into the 18th Gebirgsjaeger Corps in 1939 for the 
invasion of Poland. Posted to the 14th German 
Army and positioned to cover the southernmost 
flank, all three were intended to play a role. But 
due to the heavy congestion caused by the move- 
ment of the bulk of the German Army to the east- 
ward in August, only the 3rd Gebirgsjaeger 
Division was in position on the Polish border on 
1 September. Moving up from Austria and 
Bavaria, the 1st and 2nd divisions arrived at the 
front two days after the war started. The 18th 
Corps was assigned the task of breaking through 
the Carpathian Mountains from lower Silesia and 
then eastward to Lemberg. Once there, the moun- 
tain corps was to wheel north and make contact 
with the German 3rd Army moving south from 
Prussia. 

Here in the high Tatras, the Gebirgsjaegers 
received their baptism of fire — from other moun- 
tain troops. The Polish High Command had 
placed their 1st and 2nd Alpine brigades and the 
Rzezov Motorized Brigade in defensive positions 
here along the left flank. In the mountains, and 



the low country beyond, the jaegers found that 
their Polish counterparts could fight with the same 
expertise and elan as any elite unit in the world. 
Once through the mountains, an advance slowed 
by the unexpected resistance, the 18th Gebirgs- 
jaeger Corps spread out across the flat lands. But 
as a form of "light" division, they had very little 
in the way of motorized transport and soon fell 
even further behind schedule. In order to speed 
the advance, the commander of the 1st Division 
collected all the transport he could locate (includ- 
ing that of the other two divisions). Making up 
a rag-tag convoy from softskinned vehicles 
stiffened by the presence of a few armored cars, 
he began a race across southern Poland. The 
column refused battle whenever possible, mov- 
ing swiftly eastward, leaving bypassed pockets 
of Poles to be swept up by the following 
divisions. 

This advance formation reached the outskirts 
of Lemberg on 13 September and Maj -General 
Kubler, its commander, attempted to take the 
town by a coup-de-main. But desperate Polish in- 
fantry made an unexpected immediate counter- 
attack and drove his detachment back. Not having 
the forces or heavy weaponry necessary for a city 
battle, Kubler settled for blocking the roads to 
the town and preventing Polish reinforcements 
from arriving while awaiting the arrival of the 
rest of the corps. The Poles at Lemberg were still 
holding out when the forces of the Soviet Union 
began crossing into eastern Poland. Lemberg, 
according to the Nazi-Soviet agreement, was 
located in the Russian zone. Rather than sur- 
render to the hated Russians, the Polish com- 
mander now chose to do so to the German 
Gebirgsjaegers. After this surrender, the 1st 
Gebirgsjaeger Division turned Lemberg over to 
Soviet occupation troops (little realizing that other 
jaegers would once again have to fight for Lem- 
berg in 1941). 

Early in 1940, two more Gebirgsjaeger 
regiments— the 142nd and I43rd— began moun- 
tain training in order to form a fourth mountain 
division. The 142nd was disbanded after the suc- 
cessful conclusion of operations in the West, but 
the 143rd Regiment was transferred to Klagen- 
furt to serve as the core for the formation of the 
6th Gebirgsjaeger Division. From late 1940 
through early 1941, the 6th would serve occu- 
pation duties in Poland, before being transferred 
south. 

Meanwhile, the legend of the Gebirgsjaegers 
was being forged in Norway. For that invasion, 
the 139th Regiment of the 3rd Division had been 
selected to take and hold the Norwegian port of 
Narvik. Transported by destroyers into the fjord, 
the jeagers were able to surprise the Norwegian 
defenders and land without a single casualty. But 
this easy landing was to bring some hard fight- 
ing in its wake. A few days later a British flotilla 
trapped and sank ail the German destroyers in 
the narrow fjord. Now the 1750 jaegers (along 
with a few stranded sailors) stood isolated in the 
snow-covered north. The mountaineers of the 
139th were under the command of Maj-General 
Eduard Diet!, an energetic and innovative 
Austrian. Using divers, he reclaimed several AA 
guns from the decks of the sunken destroyers. 
Equipping the sailors with these and captured 
small arms, he placed them along the south shore 
of the fjord. His jaegers were arranged in a string 



of outposts north of Narvik to protect the vital 
railroad that ran from Sweden to the port. He 
even received one battery of 75mm pack 
howitzers by parachute to supply his meager force 
some artillery support. 

The morning of 13 April saw the beginning 
of the "Battle of Narvik". Arrayed against Dietl 
was the bulk of the 6th Norwegian Brigade, up 
to strength but missing most of its support 
weapons (which had been stored in Narvik when 
the Germans landed). And on this date the British 
24th Guards, French Chasseurs Alpins and a Free 
Polish brigade began landings to the north and 
south of the town. For the next ten weeks, the 
jaegers defended their positions while under 
constant pressure. Low on food and munitions, 
Dietrs command was slowly pushed closer and 
closer to the Swedish border. 

On Friday, 10th of May, even as Diet! 
seriously discussed with his surviving officers 
marching the 139th into internment in Sweden, 
German troops smashed across the borders of 
Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and France. 
Notified of the attack, Dietl put his plans on hold 
while hoping that the Allies would withdraw their 
forces for the defense of France. Instead, the 
enemy increased its operations in an obvious 
attempt to wind-up this sideshow in the far north. 
With increasing casualties, the 139th was again 
forced further back into the mountains until Dietl 
decided they must make a last stand. Ski patrols 
on 5 lune informed him of an increase in British 
and allied activity, and he suspected that the final 
push might be about to begin. But after two days 
with no contact, German patrols were again dis- 
patched and returned with word that all of the 
Allied forces except the depleted Norwegians had 
been evacuated. 

With only Norwegians left, Dietl launched his 
own counteroffensive and forced the surrender 
of the gallant 6th Norwegian Brigade in only three 
days. Meanwhile the 138th Regiment had taken 
Trondheim. Compared to the operation in Norway, 
the fighting that other Gebirgsjaegers experienced 
in France was but a training exercise. The epic 
story of how 2000 German Gebirgsjaegers and 
sailors had held off 15000 Allied troops in ten 
weeks of mountain warfare made Died a hero. 
His reward was command of the newly formed 
' 'Mountain Corps Norway' ' , of which the 3rd 
Division was to be the core. In November of 
1942, this corps would be renamed the 19th 
Gebirgsjaeger Corps, and was destined to spend 
the entire war in Lapland. 

After me fall f France, the OKW started 
making plans for the invasion of England. Lead- 
ing the way was to be elements of the 1st 
Gebirgsjaeger Division, and these mountain men 
spent their summer training for a seaborne oper- 
ation. When Sealion was cancelled, the Gebirgs- 
jaegers of the 1st continued their amphibious 
training, for they were now slated to serve as 
assault troops for the capture of Gibraltar. When 
this plan too was cancelled, they were at last 
reposted back to the Alps. 

On 23 October 1940, after the decision had 
been made to invade Russia, orders were issued 
to pull six regular infantry regiments from 
divisional units slated for conversion to panzer 
divisions. Mountain training began for these, and 
its completion saw the number of Gebirgsjaeger 
divisions increased to six. The 4th Division was 



37 



composed of the i3th and 91st Gebirgsjaeger 
Regiments, along with the 94th Gebirgsjaeger 
Artillery Regiment. The 5th Gebirgsjaeger 
Division was formed around the men of the 100th 
Gebirgsjaeger Regiment (stripped from the 1st 
Division), and included the 85th Gebirgsjaeger 
and 95th Gebirgsjaeger Artillery regiment as well 
as the revamped 100th. To the 6th Division was 
added the 118th Gebirgsjaeger Artillery 
Regiment. 

Meanwhile, to the south, a new front had 
opened. Mussolini launched an ill-advised all- 
Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940. 
In bitter fighting, the Italians were driven back 
into the mountains of Albania by the able Greeks . 
Worse, British troops occupied the Greek islands 
of Crete and Limnos. This seized Hitler's atten- 
tion, for the Rumanian oilfields around Ploesti 
were within bomber range of airfields on Crete. 
Afraid that the British would use their new-found 
ally as an entrance into southern Europe, Hitler 
ordered the invasion of Greece to protect the flank 
of his envisioned great invasion of Russia. When, 
as part of the deployment for the attack on 
Greece, Bulgaria allowed the entry of German 
troops, the Greek government authorized the 
landing of military forces from the Common- 



wealth on the mainland. By 31 March the 1st 
Australian Corps (6th Australian and 2nd New 
Zealand divisions, along with the British 1st Tank 
Brigade, 2nd Armoured) had disembarked and 
taken up defensive positions north of Mount 
Olympus along the River Aliakmon. 

By the end of 1940, Hungary, Rumania and 
Bulgaria had all joined the Axis. Pressure had 
been put upon Yugoslavia to follow suit and on 
25 March 1941 , the signing of an agreement be- 
tween Yugoslavia's Prince Regent Paul and the 
Axis coalition took place in Vienna. But elements 
in the Yugoslav military disagreed, and took this 
as pretext to conduct a successful coup d'etat, 
led by General Simovic. They then installed the 
17-year-old Prince Peter on the throne and dis- 
avowed the Axis alliance, but tried to maintain 
a neutral stance. Hitler saw this as the "blackest 
of treacheries" and ordered Yugoslavia added to 
the plans that OKW was engaged in laying to deal 
with Greece. 

The 2nd and 1 2th Armies were assigned the 
"Balkan question." The 1st Gebirgsjaeger 
Division formed the main element of the 49th 
Mountain Corps in the 2nd Army, and would in- 
vade Yugoslavia from its positions in southern 
Austria between Klagenfurt and Bleiburg. (Origi- 



nally, it was to have been pan of the 12th Army 
slated for operations in Greece, but was trans- 
ferred to the 2nd to assist in the rapid conquest 
of Yugoslavia,) From Austria, the 1st Gerbirgs- 
jaeger was to cross the Slovene Alps and make 
for the city of Celje. In the early hours of 6 April 
1941 , dive bombers of the Luftwaffe opened the 
attack with a massive air assault on the capital. 
After one-and-a-half hours, all communications 
between the Yugoslav high command and its field 
armies were severed. 

The actions of the 1st Gebirgsjaeger Division 
was of a secondary nature in that they were main- 
ly to protect the left flank of the Italian 2nd Army. 
In the Slovene Alps, the jaegers were able to 
easily shove aside assembling units of the 
Yugoslav 7th Army as they made their advance; 
on 1 1 April the 1st Gebirgsjaegers captured Celje, 
where they accepted the surrender of the newly 
formed Slovenian government. The main thrust 
of the Axis campaign had been the quick capture 
of Belgrade by the XLI Panzer Corps and XL VI 
Panzer Corps, Under attack from three sides, the 
city fell and by 17 April Yugoslavia had gone 
the way of Poland, Norway, Denmark, France, 
Belgium and Holland. 

Under command of the 12th Army were the 



TABLE 1: Table of Organization- 
German Gebirgsjaeger Battalion 
Unit Manpower ASL Equivalent 

Gebirgsjaeger Battalion 877 



Battalion HQ 


27 


10-2 SMC 
8-1 SMC 


WM 


Technical Company 


173 






Signals Platoon 




2xSquads 





Engineer Platoon 



Lt. Howitzer Platoon 



AT Company 
2 Gun Sections (each) 



ATR Squad 

MG Company 
HMG Platoon 

MMG Platoon 

Mortar Platoon 



30 



208 



3 Jaeger Cos. (each) 
Company HQ 



Weapons Platoon 




Radio 

3 X Squads 

3xDC 

FT 

LMG ^^^^^ 

2 X Crews 

2 x75mm INF Gun 

2xOpel/Kfzl/KdKfe2 

2 X Crew 

2 x 37mm AT Gun 
2xOpeI/Kfzl/KdK&2 
2xHalfsquads 
2XATR/PSK 

9-1 SMC 

3xSquads 

3XHMG 

3 x Squads 
3XMMG 
4xCrews 
4x81mm/12Gmm 1 

9-1/8-1 SMC 

8-1/8-0 SMC 

8-0/7-0 SMC 

Squad 

2 x Crews 

2 X 81mm MTR 

Squad 

ATR/PSK 




TABLE 2: Standard ASL Gebirgsjaeger Company 

The following would be the ASL composition of a single Gebirgsjaeger 
company. Note that three different OBs are possible; type of units, 
ELR and SAN would vary depending on the type of company (Wehrmacht, 
6th and 7th SS Divisions, or other SS). Further, when in combat, 
elements of the MG Company or Engineer Platoon would usually be 
attached depending upon mission. 



3 Jaeger Platoons (each) 


3xSquads 




Halfsquad 




50mm MTR 




LMG 





Wehrmacht 


6th & 7th SS 


Other SS* 




9-1 SMC 


9-1 SMC 


8-1 SMC 




8-1 SMC 


8-1 SMC 


8-0 SMC 




8-0 SMC 


8-0 SMC 


7-0 SMC 




11x4-6-8 MMC 


1 1 x 6-5-8 MMC 


HX4-4-7 MMC 




3X24-8 HS 


3X34-8 HS 


3X2-4-7 HS 




3XLMG 


3XLMG 


2XLMG 




3 X 50mm MTR 


3 X50mm MTR 


3 X 50mm MTR 




ATR/PSK 


ATR/PSK 


ATR 




2x2-2-8 Crew 


2X2-2-8 Crew 


2x2-2-7 Crew 




2x81mm MTR 


2x8 1mm MTR 


2x8 1mm MTR 


ELR 


4/5 


4/3 


NA/2 


SAN 


4 


2 


2 


BPV 


174 


202 


109 



* — Use Axis Minor MMC 



38 



5th and 6th Gebirgsjaeger divisions as part of the 
18th Mountain Corps. From positions in southern 
Bulgaria, the corps was to help break through the 
Greek Metaxas line of fortifications. After this 
penetration, the jaegers were to secure the valley 
of the Struma river, which would give the 
German motorized formations waiting behind 
them access to the coastal lowlands of eastern 
Greece. Where in Yugoslavia, the enemy ill- 
prepared and facing attack from three directions, 
here the Gebirgsjaegers were forced to conduct 
a frontal assault on a fortified line manned by 
troops at full readiness. But since the Metaxas 
Line was built along a mountain range, it was 
decided that the lighdy -armed Gerbirgsjaegers 
were the "obvious'" choice as assault troops. 
After three days of near-continuous assaults on 
pillboxes held by Greeks fighting with fanatical 
courage, the 1st Division was finally able to 
breach the line enough to allow exploitation by 
the waiting panzers and panzergrenadiers. 

After the breakthrough, the German mororizcd 
forces began a rapid advance down the peninsula 
towards Athens. Approaching Mount Olympus, 
they ran into the semi-prepared British defensive 
positions, and were halted. Here in another 
mountainous region of Greece, the panzers were 
again restricted in their maneuver by the narrow 
passes and steep slopes, so the 5th and 6th 
Gebirgsjaeger Divisions were trucked south to 
penetrate the British position (known as the 
"Thermopylae Line"). Climbing over Mount 
Olympus in a blizzard, the jaeger regiments of 
the 5th outflanked the British lines on 19 April 
and forced their hasty withdrawal. On the 23rd, 
the 6th Gebirgsjaegers forced the pass at Ther- 
mopylae, completing the rout. While British units 
dashed for the coast and evacuation, the 6th 
Gebirgsjaeger Division, in coordination with the 
2nd Panzer Division, captured Athens. By 30 
April hostilities had ceased and the campaign for 
Greece was over. 

After the evacuation of Commonwealth forces 
from Greece, all save the 2nd New Zealand 
Division and some garrison forces were returned 
to Egypt for rest and refit. On Crete, the New 
Zealanders were deployed to defend the airfields 
still in use by the RAF. Hitler, still concerned 
with the safety of the Rumanian oilfields, and 
prompted by Kurt Student, approved an airborne 
invasion of the rocky, mountainous island. As 
originally planned, the operation was to be a 
showcase for the Luftwaffe, using the 7th 
Parachute and 22nd Air- Landing divisions— but 
the 22nd was unavailable. Casting about for 
another veteran division, General Student selected 
the 5th Gebirgsjaegers to serve as his air-landing 
reinforcement. After a very short training, the 
jaegers arrived in the confusion at Crete by plane 
and boat. 

Once the paratroopers were in possession of 
the Maleme airfield (22 May), German Ju-52s 
began their shuttle service from Greece bring- 
ing in the men of the 5th Gebirgsjaeger Division. 
Many flights landed while the airfield was still 
under fire and went straight into the lines without 
waiting for their parent commands to arrive. See- 
ing that none of the other major objectives were 
secured and out-of-touch with Student, General 
Ringel, the commander of the 5th, set out to 
pacify the western end of the island. The 95th 
Gebirgsjaeger Pioneer Battalion was left to guard 



the airfield and to capture the town of Kastelli 
(where some paratroopers were being held cap- 
tive). The 1st and 2nd battalions of the 100th 
Regiment along with the 1st Battalion of the 85th 
formed a line east of the airfield and prepared 
to attack. 

Using their mountaineering skills to the 
fullest, the jaegers outflanked the New Zealanders 
by moving through terrain the enemy thought in- 
accessible. Time and again the German alpine 
troops were able to force the Commonwealth 
units to fail back or be isolated in a slow but 
steady erosion of their positions. Believing that 
the British would move most of their forces to 
Heraklion on the eastern end of the island to make 
their stand, Ringel did not realize that they would 
instead escape Crete by moving south over the 
rugged White Mountains to embark for Egypt. 
Thus, he assigned only small detachments to pur- 
sue the New Zealanders, while the bulk of his 
divison continued the capture of the northern 
shore. 

With the fall of Heraklion and the relief of 
the paratroopers there, Ringel was finally able 
to turn his entire force southward in an attempt 
to catch the remaining British forces at Sphakia. 
In the blazing heat of the Mediterranean summer 
sun, the jaegers struggled to move their equip- 
ment over and through the mountains while stay- 
ing in contact with the British. With no vehicles 
or even animal transport, they were forced to 
pack everything— supplies, munitions, heavy 
weapons, water, casualties, everything— them- 
selves. Inevitably, the lack of artillery and 
ammunition, along with the stubborn resistance 
of the New Zealand rear guard, prevented Ringel 
from interrupting the evacuation of the bulk of 
the British force. 

The German Gebirgsjaegers had fought in all 
of Hitler's campaigns from Poland in 1939 
through Crete in 1941 . Except for a brief period 
in France and the Low Countries, their campaigns 
had been in, near or through mountainous 
regions. But 22 June 1941 brought mountain 
operations to an end for the rest of the year when 
the long advance across the vast Russian steppes 
began. Grouped in three Army Groups, 136 
German divisions forged into Stalinist Russia. In 
the campaign the 1st and 4th Gebirgsjaeger 
Divisions were assigned to Army Group South; 
the 5th to Army Group North; and the 3rd and 
6th divisions assigned to Dietl operating along 
the Murmansk Front from Finland. 

The 1st and 4th divisions formed the bulk of 
the 49th Mountain Corps (17th Army) during the 
encirclement battle at Uman in July 1941. The 
49th Corps had, at various times during Bar- 
barossa, attached to it a light division and two 
regular infantry divisions assigned to its com- 
mand as well. The reason the regular divisions 
were assigned to a mountain corps can be traced 
to the original organization of the Gebirgsjaeger 
divisions. Each such was defined as a "light" 
division in that it had only two infantry regiments 
(as compared to three). In mountainous terrain, 
a two-regiment division could operate as effec- 
tively and coordinate its components better than 
a three-regiment unit. But out on the open 
steppes, the lack of manpower and guns was felt 
immediately. Thus, through the campaign across 
southern Russia, veteran regular divisions were 
to be added for specific operations. 



On 15 November 1941, the 7th Gebirgsjaeger 
Division was created when the 99th Light Divi- 
sion was ordered converted. The original regi- 
ments of the division, the 206th and 218th 
Jaegers, were retrained and re-equipped. Artillery 
support was provided by the newly-formed 82nd 
Gebirgsjaeger Artillery Regiment. It would be 
1942 before this new batch of mountaineers 
would see combat as "Gebirgsjaegers." Dis- 
positions of the mountain divisions in 1942 in- 
cluded the 2nd, 6th and 7th in Norway or 
Lapland; the 3rd and 5th were now fighting in 
the Leningrad sector; and the 1st and 4th were 
still with Army Group South. The Lapland region 
was a land of marshes and tundra; the vast 
expanses of frozen low country, broken by a few 
low hills, did more to lower the morale of the 
mountain troops than did the Russians they faced. 
The Leningrad sector was also devoid of the 
terrain they were accustomed to, and would leave 
the jaegers dreaming of high mountains and cool 
summer breezes. Only in the south, as the 
German forces pressed into the Caucasus Moun- 
tains, would the Gebirgsjaegers be in their 
element. 

Army Group "A" (one of two such in AG 
South) was to move through that summer of 1942 
over the Caucasus range toward Baku on the east 
side. Here the Germans hoped to capture the vast 
resources of lead, sdver, oil and timber of the 
region, crippling Russian production while boost- 
ing their own. The job of breaking through this 
easternmost European range was, of course, 
assigned to the 49th Mountain Corps. On 24 
August, a special unit formed from volunteers 
of both divisions planted the Nazi flag and both 
divisional flags on the peak of Mount Elbrus, the 
highest in the Caucasus Mountains and the high 
water mark of the German military in their east- 
ward drive. 

Fighting in the Caucasus region was unlike 
any to date, and wore many different aspects. On 
the north side of the range, most of the moisture 
fell as snow, even in the summer months. The 
danger of avalanches was always present, and it 
was found that just one round from a gun into 
an overhang would cause it to crash down upon 
any below, a tactic both the Germans and Russians 
would repeatedly use. On the southern slopes the 
moisture came as rain, which lessened the danger 
of avalanche only to replace it with the threat of 
flash floods. Hence, most of the fighting here 
occurred over the ridgelines and summits. Here 
in the mountains the vehicles were given up in 
favor of pack animal transport. And the native 
Muslim tribes of the region— the Cherkassians 
and the Kharachians — loathed the Communist 
government and so made common, if not always 
expected, cause with the jaegers. 

The Germans faced the Soviet version of 
mountain troops here in the Caucasus, and were 
not impressed. STAVKA's conception of moun- 
tain troops was that any unit with warmer sleep- 
ing bags and ropes were the equivalent of the 
Gebirgsjaegers. Many bloody losses would be in- 
flicted before the Soviet command began a true 
mountain training program. But poor as these 
Russian troops were, their numbers did accom- 
plish the mission of stopping the Germans from 
breaking through the mountains into Asia. In 
November, the Russians opened their winter 
offensive with the object of driving the German 



39 



17th Army out of the mountains. From Novem- 
ber through the following March, the opposing 
alpine troops would fight innumerable small, 
isolated battles in falling snow or raging bliz- 
zards. By spring, casualties, combined with par- 
tisan activity to the rear, forced the retreat of the 
49th Mountain Corps. 

Spring 1943 saw the 1st Gebirgsjaeger Divi- 
sion, after refit, posted to the Balkans to under- 
take anti-partisan operations against their growing 
activity. Meanwhile, the 3rd was removed from 
the Leningrad front to join AG Centre and take 
an active part in the battles along the Don River. 
The 4th Gebirgsjaeger was sent northward to link 
with the 5th still near Leningrad. The 2nd, 6th 
and 7th remained at the stalemated front in the 
far north. One new regiment, the 756th, was 
raised in Austria, but shipped out to fight with 
the Afrika Korps. At "Long Stop Hill" near 
Medjez el Bab, Tunisia, in a bitter fight with 
elements of the British 1st Army, its three 
battalions were virtually wiped out and the 
remainder taken prisoner. 

After a year of dismal successes, the spring 
of 1944 again saw wholesale transfers of the 
Gebirgsjaeger divisions. The 8th was formed 
from cadres drawn from the 139th Gebirgsjaeger 
Regiment and 157th Reserve Division. (Due to 
the shortages of men and material, it was not until 
February 1945 that the 8th Gebirgsjaeger Divi- 
sion went into action in the Italian Alps, surren- 
dering to the Americans in April with the 
armistice there.) The 5th Division was transferred 
from Russia and took up positions near Cassino 
(Italy) where it helped to fight the British and 
Americans to a standstill. Falling back to the pre- 
pared defenses of the Gothic Line in northern 
Italy, the jaegers fought a delaying action that 
slowed the Allied pace. The 5th Gebirgsjaeger 
Division's Maj -General Schrank surrendered to 
Allied forces near the Po in late April 1945. 

The 1st and 4th divisions found themselves 
together again in the Carpathain Mountains. 
Despite their successes, as the Red Army moved 
into Bulgaria and Rumania, both these nations 
sued for peace with the Soviets. February 1945 
found the 1st, 3rd and 4th Gebirgsjaeger Divi- 
sions defending Germany, Austria and Czechos- 
lovakia; they were soon joined by the barely 
trained "9th" division (so designated only 12 
days before the end of the war) to hold the Sem- 
mering Pass in eastern Austria. In the German 
province of Styria, the 1st Gebirgsjaegers became 
apart of the 6th SS Panzer Army defending their 
homeland. In their native mountains, the jaegers 
showed a fanaticism unheard of, fighting even 
past the last day of hostilities to keep the Russians 
out of the southern Alps of Germany and hold 
open the routes through which many Germans 
and Austrians fled westward. Styria was one of 
the few areas of Germany not overrun by Allied 
forces before the May armistice. 

After the Russo-Finnish armistice on 2 Sep- 
tember 1944, Finland was forced to oversee the 
evacuation of German troops from her soil. As 
the German army in lapland marched towards 
Norway, the task of providing a rear guard fell 
upon the 7th Gebirgsjaeger Division. The 7th had 
been fighting in Soviet Karelia, just north of 
Leningrad. Hoping that their Finnish comrades 
would leave them alone to depart, the jaegers had 
to first disengage from the Russians, and then 



move almost the entire length of Finland on foot 
to the Norwegian border. But under pressure 
from the Soviets, who felt the German withdrawal 
too placid, the Finns were forced to hurry them 
along. The 7th came under constant attack from 
Finnish Sissi units as winter came on. After a 
major but inconclusive clash between the Finns 
and 7th Gebirgsjaegers at Rovaniemi, the last 
Germans finally pulled out. Upon reaching Nor- 
way, the 6th and 7th were ordered to take up 
positions to resist an expected Allied invasion, 
while the 2nd was recalled to Germany. The 
Allies never did invade Norway and these elite 
veterans spent the rest of the war in isolation as 
garrison troops. Only after the war ended did they 
return home, under British supervision. 

In the last confusing, days of the war the 
OKW accidently gave the designation "9th" to 
two separate mountain divisions. The first 9th 
Gebirgsjaeger, which received its designation 
after the retreat through Finland, consisted of a 
battle group commanded by Maj -General Krautler. 
(The second "9th" is the one referred to above, 
cobbled together from various small formations 
just before the end of the war.) Karulter's com- 
mand surrendered to the British in May 1945 
along with all other Wehrmacht forces in 
Norway. 

In late 1944, as mentioned, the 2nd Gebirgs- 
jaeger Division reached Denmark where it under- 
went reorganization. From here it was shipped 
south to Wurttemberg (Germany) to aggressively 
defend the region against the Americans (see ASL 
Scenario I). Fighting from February through 
May, General Hans Degan, a native Bavarian and 
badly wounded in the last weeks of the fighting, 
finally surrendered his command to American 
forces. The final chapters of the 3rd Gebirgs- 
jaeger Division are much the same. Withdrawn 
from AG Centre, it continued operations against 
the Russians in Hungary and Slovakia until sur- 
rendering after the armistice. 

Last, but defintely not the least, there is one 
last Gebirgsjaeger unit worthy of mention. It 
probably best demonstrates the quality of men and 
officers that comprised the elite. Battle Group 
"Ringel" was a small irregular formation com- 
posed entirely of convalescent and recruit jaegers, 
a handful of staff officers, along with a few dis- 
charged veterans and civilian volunteers in the 
Steiermark province of Austria. General Julius 
"Papa" Ringel, hero of Crete and recently com- 
mander of the LXIX Corps, assembled them in 
January 1945. Their weapons were scrounged 
from museums and home guard units, and in- 
cluded only three WWI-era field guns for sup- 
port. This ad-hoc formation of proud Gebirgs- 
jaegers was able to drive the Russians back from 
Fledbach clear to the Riegersburg line, and then 
held that line against all Russian counterattacks 
until the final German surrender in May. 

SS Gebirgsjaeger Divisions: 

The Waffen SS created a total of six Gebirgs- 
jaeger divisions and one mountain brigade dur- 
ing the latter half of the war, but these divisions 
were largely composed of foreign volunteers and 
did not perform as well as the regular Gebirgs- 
jaeger divisions. Further, as the war progressed 
to its end, they were plagued with constantly in- 
creasing desertions. 

The 6th SS "Nord" Gebirgsjaeger Division 



served in Lapland until the German withdrawal 
from Finland, whereupon it was shipped to Ger- 
many to take part in the Ardennes Offensive of 
December 1944— with no particular distinction. 
Cut off on the western side of the Rhine in March 
1945, the division — now only six thousand strong 
—put up a spirited resistance, taking several days 
for overwhelming U.S. forces to run it to ground. 
The divisional commander was finally captured 
on 2 April, bringing its organized resistance to 
an end. 

Perhaps the most famous and best of these 
SS formations was the 7th SS "Prinz Eugen" 
Gebirgsjaeger Division. In an attempt to control 
the growing partisan problem in Yugoslavia, the 
SS raised the 7th to combat them in their own 
environment. During its tour of duty, the 7th took 
part in many operations, including the attempt 
to take Tito and the destruction of the 1st 
Yugoslav Partisan Division. By the end of 1944, 
the 7th SS Gebirgsjaegers were fighting a 
Bulgarian-Russian army invading Yugoslavia. At 
Cilli, the last remnants of the 7th were overrun 
and scattered by partisan forces. 

The 13th SS "Handschar" and the 23rd SS 
"Kama" Gebirgsjaeger Divisions were both 
Croat formations made up of Muslims with a few 
German officers and NCOs. The 13th was un- 
doubtably one of the worst combat units in the 
Waffen-SS, After a mutiny in southern France, 
where it had been sent for training, in mid-1943, 
the 13th was sent to the Balkans in early 1944 
for anti-partisan duties; however, it largely con- 
fined itself to massacring defenseless Christian 
villages and establishing record desertion rates. 
During the retreat from the Balkans, the 2nd 
Panzer Army disarmed the well-equipped troops, 
giving its supplies and weapons to German for- 
mations. It disbanded in early 1945. The 23rd 
SS Gebirgsjaegers was formed in Bosnia during 
the late summer of 1944, but its morale was so 
poor that it never saw action and was disbanded 
just four months later. 

The 21st SS "Skanderberg" Gebirgsjaeger 
Division was raised in Koddevo (Albania) on 
Himmler's orders on 17 April 1944. With a com- 
plete lack of German officers and equipment com- 
bined with the dubious nature of the Albanian 
rank and file, the division never completed its 
organization nor its training. Even small units 
outfitted with captured equipment and sent out 
on anti-partisan operations deserted. By mid- 
1944, most of the recruits were unemployed 
German sailors from ships trapped in the Aegean, 
When the Germans retreated from Albania, the 
division was disbanded. The more reliable mem- 
bers of "Skanderberg" were transferred to the 
I4th SS Gebirgsjaeger Regiment of the 7th SS 
division. 

The 24th SS "Karstjaeger" Division origi- 
nally began as a single "high alpine" company 
formed in July 1942 for operations in the Istrian 
peninsula. Within four months it had grown to 
battalion size, mostly Italian Fascists, and took 
part in Axis operations until Italy surrendered. 
In July 1944, it was ordered that it be expanded 
to division size, drawing additional manpower 
from the Tyrolean and Italian Alps, but this 
proved impossible. It apparently never exceeded 
regimental strength, and was disbanded in 1945 
at the time of the armistice in Italy. 

The single Waffen-SS brigade was the SS- 



40 



Gebirgs Tartar Brigade, created from the Tartar 
Regiment in September 1944. Drawn from 
Mohammedan Tartars of the Crimea, it was a 
police regiment with German officers. When the 
German Army evacuated the Crimea, the regi- 
ment went with them, fearful of reprisals. The 
brigade was disbanded in December 1944 and the 
personnel transferred to other formations of the 
Waffen-SS. 

By the end of World War IT, many nations 
had "mountain" divisions. But none were actu- 
ally trained to operate in the high reaches of the 
European mountains, and were instead "winter 
combat" specialists (like the U.S. 10th Moun- 
tain Division). And none — especially those of the 
SS— approached the record of service and pro- 
fessionalism shown by the Wehrmacht Gebirgs- 
jaeger divisions. 



Fitting the Gebirgsjaegers into ASL 

Selection of an ASL counter-mix to represent 
a Gebirgs unit can be affected by several condi- 
tions that historically affected their composition 
during the war. Morale, ELR, squad quality and 
leadership all varied dramatically depending on 
the men recruited, the recruiting area and nation- 
ality, and the shifting morale of the troops on 
various fronts as the fortunes of Germany shifted. 
In some cases, even the nature of the region that 
the fighting took place in would have an effect 
on tactical morale. 

A generic battalion OB is provided (Table 1) 
that shows the usual Gebirgsjaeger TO&E in ASL 
terms. This allows us to examine the battalion 
structure without concern for squad quality or 
morale. Using this table, would-be scenario 
designers and DYO enthusiasts can simply insert 
the appropriate squad and crew types (from Table 
2) to represent a company of any of the three 
broad levels of Gebirgsjaegers spoken of here. 

Looking at the Wehrmacht Gebirgsjaeger bat- 
talion as an example, a 10-2 and 8-1 SMC were 
selected as battalion-level commanders. While the 
Battalion HQ shows a manpower of 27, most 
were clerks, runners, medics and such and would 
not be reflected in any ASL scenario. The Tech- 
nical Company has four distinct platoons, any of 
which could support a Gebirgsjaeger company 
in action. The Signals Platoon has two 4-6-8 
MMC with a Radio; the radio still must be 
manned by a SMC to be effective, which can 
come from any of the battalion's sub-units. The 
Engineer Platoon has three squads with three DC, 
an FT and LMG as armament; the ID letters of 
these squads should be recorded to indentify them 
as having all engineer and sapper abilities 
(Hl.22-.23). The Light Howitzer Platoon is com- 
posed of two crews and their 75mm Infantry 
Guns, with two vehicles as transport (Opel Blitz, 
Kubelwagen or Kettenkrad). Each battalion had 
an AT Company equipped with four 37mm AT 
Guns in two sections, with appropriate transport. 
A unique part of the AT Company was an AT 
"squad", represented here by two 2-4-8 HS each 
armed with an ATR. After September 1943, the 
ATRs should be replaced with the Panzerschreck 
(PSK). Elite units would have received the PSK 
before other line units (and the Gebirgsjaegers 
were definitely considered to be an elite forma- 
tion by OKW); if in doubt as to substituting the 
PSK, a random die roll can be made. 



The Machine Gun Company is composed of 
three platoons—an HMG, a MMG, and a MTR 
platoon. Each Gebirgsjaeger MG platoon will 
have three 4-6-8 squads manning an equal number 
of HMG or MMG (depending on the platoon in 
play). The Heavy MTR Platoon has four 8 1 mm 
MTR manned by crews; this would be re- 
equipped with 120mm MTR after 1943. Since 
battalion-Icvcl OB A support would be provided 
by the MTR platoon, the MTR platoon and MTR 
OB A cannot co-exist in the same scenario. 

The three Jaeger ("Rifle") companies have 
identical organization, with— in this case — the 
company 9-1 along with a 4-6-8 squad in the HQ 
section. (SS company-level SMC would be an 8-1 
or 8-0 depending on quality of unit.) Each Jaeger 
company had an inherent Weapons Platoon 
equipped with 81mm MTR and crews and an 
ATR squad; as with the Technical Company, the 
ATR would be superceded by PSK in Septem- 
ber 1943. The infantry component of a Jaeger 
Company has three platoons of three squads and 
one HS each. Each platoon would have a 50mm 
MTR manned by the HS, while a LMG would 
be distributed among the three squads. A varia- 
ble number of MMG- or HMG-armed squads 
from the MG Company might be assigned to the 
Jaeger Company depending upon its mission. 
Except in the case of special actions, all SW 
assignments in these TO&Es follow the German 
SW Allotment Chart (HI. 83). 

It should be noted that the regular Gebirgs- 
jaeger divisions were recruited among the 
populace of the mountainous regions of Germany 
and Austria. As the Russians pushed their way 
into these regions, the jaegers were now fight- 
ing on their home ground to defend their friends 
and families. In all of Germany, these areas were 
not overrun by the advancing Soviets, due in the 
most part to the staunch defense put up by the 
German Gebirgsjaegers. Since these formations 
were indeed able to hold off the Soviets until after 
the war officially ended, allowing so many others 
(and even, unfortunately, some SS formations) 
to escape to the west, their ELR should be "5" 
during scenarios set in March, April or May 
1945— and "4" previous to that. The one excep- 
tion would be any scenarios that represent the 
jaegers in combat in Lapland or the Kuban area, 
where morale tended to be lower due to the 
terrain; I would recommend a "3" ELR in these 
instances. Finally, if designing an end-war 
scenario, remember that the Gebirgsjaegers were 
heavily outnumbered by the Soviet enemy, and 
found with the fatalism and fanaticism typical of 
such elite formations; "No Quarter" (A 20. 3) 
should be applied. 

Without the degree of artillery support an in- 
fantry division could expect, the Gebirgsjaegers 
turned to other methods. Primarily, they had 
better than average marksmen (many having 
hunted and camped in the Alps all their lives), 
equipped with the latest scopes, and came to rely 
on long-range sniper fire. For this reason, I feel 
that the SAN in any Gebirg scenario should be 
based on an initial value of "4", with an adjust- 
ment up or down depending on the situation. 

Turning to the SS formations, the same general 
structure is used, but the squad and leadership 
quality changes. For the 6th and 7th SS Gebirgs- 
jaeger Divisions, being relatively well -trained and 
prepared, the standard SS 6-5-8 is substituted for 



the 4-5-8 MMC. But the major differences be- 
tween a Wehrmacht and SS division will be found 
in the ELR and SAN. Like many SS formations, 
the 6th and 7th maintained excellent morale 
through 1943; but the defeats of 1944 and 1945 
brought too many replacements and an erosion 
of morale. Unless there is sound historical data, 
the ELR for elements of these two divisions 
should be set at "4" from 1939-44, and "3" 
thereafter. Too, the SAN will be lower, given 
the lack of many native mountaineers in their 
ranks. 

The other SS formations represent those 
Gebirgsjaeger divisions composed of other 
nationalities: the 13th and 23rd of Croats, the 21st 
of Albanians, Turkomans from the Crimea in the 
SS Tartar Brigade, and so forth. All of these 
nationalities would qualify as Axis Minors, even 
though they were officered by Germans and wore 
German uniforms (some, not so proudly). Using 
the Axis Minor elite MMC seems to be the best 
compromise to reflect their fignting qualities and 
weaponry. Poor units usually have poor leader- 
ship (or vice versa), and this is reflected in the 
choice of SMCs. Being generous by nature, I left 
them with an 8-1 SMC for Company CO, but 
they are restricted by the LG# to only one extra 
SMC. However, since these were supposedly 
"German" companies with German leaders, I 
have left both leaders in place but have reduced 
the values. Following the same line of logic, Axis 
Minor crews would be used to fill all crew spots, 
but will operate the weaponry without restriction. 
Being low-quality troops, the company -level AT 
squad was never to receive the PSK, and the ATR 
is the only weapon allowed to them. 

These alien units were not created until late 
1943, and hence do not have a 1939-43 ELR. 
Then, being just as likely to desert as fight, the 
ELR has been set at "2" for 1944-45. These bat- 
talions will be governed by all Axis Minor rules 
and restrictions shown in the A25 Chart and listed 
in the rules (A25.8). With this lack of elan and 
training also comes the lowest SAN possible; 
unless there is a definite historical reference to 
such found in your research for scenario-design, 
the SAN will always be "0". Given that these 
formations usually saw combat against partisan 
forces, I think that some interesting scenarios can 
still be crafted with these SS Gebirgsjaegers as 
participants. 

Some general characteristics apply to all Ger- 
man Gebirgsjaegers. All German mountain troops 
would be allowed Scaling (B23.424) and use of 
skiis (E4.0) in any appropriate scenario. In as 
much as these men hailed from the high Alps (at 
least those in the regular army divisions), Extreme 
Winter (E3.74) penalties do not apply to non-SS 
Gebirgsjaegers. Further, given their equipment, 
all German Gebirgsjaegers— even of the poorest 
SS units— have Winter Camouflage (E3.712) 
when appropriate. 

Scenarios placed in the Caucasus Mountains 
could also have Chekassian/Kharachian partisans 
fighting alongside the Germans against the Soviet 
forces. Two or three (random dr) 3-3-7 MMC 
and a single SMC (random dr) can be added to 
the German OB. These Axis partisans would have 
five MF while in any hex other than level 0, and 
all benefits of A25.24 would be applied normally. 



41 



BATTLES IN THE KREMLIN 

Historical SetUp for the 12th Party Congress 

By Wayne Ingalls 



KREMLIN has appeared several times in The 
GENERAL'S "So That's What You've Been 
Playing" listing. It's not hard to figure out why. 
The game offers fast-paced interaction, ample 
"strategic" options, and lots of variety. KREM- 
LIN is, in a word, fun. So, what more could one 
ask for? Why, the KREMLIN Revolution variant, 
of course! While "fun" might be hard to quantify, 
Revolution just about tops out on the ol' fun 
meter. The variant doubles the number of politi- 
cians, adds a slew of additional Intrigue cards, 
and gives a taste of something the original game 
lacked— history. 

Now, the purpose of this article is not to add 
a new chapter to the "realism" versus "play- 
ability" feud; but if you can add more historical 
flavor to a design without decreasing playability, 
I'm all for it. I think most gamers are. Fortunately, 
the Revolution variant does just that. 

To be completely truthful, the title Revolu- 
tion variant is a bit of a misnomer. The "October 
Revolution" began at 2:00 AM on November 
7th, 1917 (October 25th, old style). The Revo- 
lution variant begins with the 12th Party Congress 
of April 1923, more than five years later. And 
the game is not the "Russian Civil War" variant 
as advertised either. While the last of the White 
armies did not evacuate Vladivostok until October 
1922, the Bolsheviks were firmly in control of 
the country by the end of 1920. Perhaps Revolu- 
tion could more aptly have been entitled "The 
Rise of Stalin' ' . And the 12th party Congress was 
the major leap in Joseph Stalin's real rise to 
power. 

The primary reason for the 12th Party Con- 
gress' significance can be traced to one factor: 
the absence of Vladimir Lenin. Comrade Lenin 
was still alive, but this was the first Party Con- 
gress without his presence. He had suffered his 
third and most devastating stroke in March 1923, 
and was too ill to attend the 12th Congress in 
April. After this stroke, he was robbed of power 
of speech and his entire right side was paralyzed. 
There is a firm reason players of the variant can- 
not initially allocate Influence Points (IP) on 
Lenin— he was not even present at the 1 2th Party 
Congress! 

When Lenin suffered his first stroke, it was 
generally believed that his illness was only tem- 
porary, and in any event not serious. However, 
when he suffered a second stroke on 1 6 Decem- 
ber 1922, it became clear to the world (as well 
as to the Party leadership) that the opposite was 
true. The question of Lenin's successor naturally 
arose. 

At the time of the 12th Party Congress, the 
Politboro's members were Vladimir Lenin, Leon 
Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Grigori Zinoviev, Lev 
Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin and Mikhail Tomsky 
(not included in Revolution). Although Trotsky 
seemed the most likely successor to Lenin (at least 
to the Soviet public at large), the "political wheel- 
horses" (as Trotsky later described them) dis- 
agreed. They felt that neither Trotsky nor any 
other single Politboro member was a Fitting suc- 



cessor. Trotsky described the situation in his 
book, Stalin: 

The succession was passed to a triumvirate, 
of which Zinoviev was the leader, Kamenev 
his alternate, and Stalin the junior partner. 
Zinoviev thus became, for better or worse, 
Lenin 's successor by virtue of his plurality 
inside the Politboro, and he secured that 
plurality not because his fellow-members 
deemed him the ablest and most deserving, 
but on the contrary, because they considered 
him the least capable of leadership and polit- 
ically the most vulnerable . . . It was tacitly 
understood by all but Zinoviev, not only in the 
Politboro, but on the Centra! Committee as 
well, where he likewise enjoyed a plurality, 
that he was merely a dummy in place of a 
leader, and that for as long as he behaved 
himself in accordance with the secret expec- 
tation of each of the others, which was to let 
him enjoy the glory until the real leader felt 
ready to reach out for it. 

Lenin himself apparently did not give serious 
thought to the matter of his succession until after 
his second stroke. "Lenin's Testament" (Intrigue 
Card #66) was written in two installments. The 
first, on 25 December 1922, declares, "Stalin, 
having become General Secretary [of the Com- 
munist Party] , has concentrated enormous power 
in his hands, and I am not sure that he always 
knows how to use that power with sufficient 
caution." On 4 January 1923, Lenin added a 
postscript: "1 propose to the comrades to find a 
way to remove Stalin from that position and 
appoint to it another man, more loyal, more 
courteous and more considerate to comrades, less 
capricious, etc." On 6 March, Lenin dictated to 
a trusted stenographer the severance of "all per- 
sonal and comradely relations with Stalin' ' . Three 



days later, Lenin's third stroke incapacitated him. 
During the ensuing Central Committee meet- 
ing at which Kamenev first made the Testament 
known, it became quite evident that Joseph 
Stalin's political fate was at stake. Lenin's return 
to activity could only mean the General Secre- 
tary's political death. Conversely, only Lenin's 
physical death might clear Stalin's road to power. 

The 12th Party Congress 

Early in 1923, it became clear that Stalin, as 
the Party's General Secretary, was literally pack- 
ing the upcoming Congress with delegates un- 
swervingly loyal to him personally. Zinoviev still 
held a majority within both the Politboro and the 
Central Committee. The first battle Stalin planned 
was for majority control of the Congress. The 
other battles for control would come later. 

There was considerable discussion amongst 
the Politboro members about the "Political 
Report". The Political Report, the Party Con- 
gress' keynote address, had been Lenin's 
prerogative since the foundation of the Com- 
munist Party. The person delivering this address 
would no doubt be seen by all as Lenin's heir 
apparent. Stalin immediately suggested that 
Trotsky give the Political Report! Trotsky 
declined, and insisted that Stalin, as the Parry's 
General Secretary, should give the keynote 
address. Zinoviev insisted that he give the address 
as the senior member of the triumvirate. The 
matter was finally settled by Zinoviev 's plurality 
in the Central Committe. Zinoviev would give 
the Political Report. 

He had every reason to expect an ovation the 
minute he appeared on the rostrum in the role 
of ' 'Number One Bolshevik" . He was, after all, 

Stalin with Lenin (right) during the 1919 Party Congress. 




42 



the senior member of the triumvirate decreed by 
the "political wheelhorses". And he surely ex- 
pected the support of the junior member and his 
majority of delegates. The General Secretary, 
however, double-crossed Zinoviev; he delivered 
his address in nearly oppressive silence. The ver- 
dict of the delegates was clear: Zinoviev was out 
of place as Lenin's successor. 

The 12th Party Congress raised Stalin from 
junior to senior partner in the triumvirate. 
Zinoviev 's control of the Politboro and Central 
Committee was destroyed. Stalin was In control. 
The only thing now standing in his way to 
absolute power in the USSR was the living Lenin. 

The Historical SetUp 

If one were to try and recreate the historical 
situation at the beginning of the 12th Party Con- 
gress using KREMLIN 1 s Revolution variant, how 
would one approach it? First off, there are a few 
problems. As in most things worth arguing about, 
there are two sides to the issue. The historical 
makeup of the Politboro is no exception. While 
Trotsky names only seven members and no can- 
didates at the start of the 12th Congress, other 
sources indicate some candidate members as early 
as 1921. Politicians* specific ministries, if they 
actually existed at all, are vague. 

A second problem is that one key member of 
the Politboro in 1923, Mikhail Tomsky, was in- 
explicably excluded from the variant set. Another 
problem with recreating the 1 2th Party Congress 
is the relative importance of the KGB. Felix 
Dzerzhinsky, head of the Cheka in 1923 (the 
early forerunner of the KGB) did not even be- 
come a member of the Politboro until 1924, and 
then only as an "alternate" (or candidate). 

With these obstacles in mind, the table below 
sets the Revolution variant at the start of the 12th 
Party Congress, 17 April 1923. In the KREM- 
LIN Politboro, there are a total of 13 slots: Party 
Chief, three first-level ministers, four second- 
level ministers, and five candidates. 



Position 

Party Chief 
KGB Head 
Foreign Minister 
Defense Minister 
Ideology Chief 
Industry Minister 
Economy Minister 
Sport Minister 
Candidates 



Politician 

Vladimir Lenin 
Felix Dzerzhinsky 
Grigori Zinoviev 
loseph Stalin 
Leon Trotsky 
Lev Kamenev 
Nikolai Bukharin 
vacant 

Aleksey Rykov 
Mikhail Kalinin 
Vyacheslav Molotov 
vacant 
vacant 

While perhaps a good argument can be made to 
place Trotsky as Defense Minister, the above 
represents the best placement considering 
Zinoviev's position as senior triumvir and Stalin's 
packing of the Party Congress with loyal 
delegates. 

Although Revolution simulates well the over- 
all history of the period from Stalin to Khruschev, 
it is not quite as successful at simulating the 
history at the start of the 12th Party Congress. 
The following rules changes are designed to 
rectify this situation: 

1. The KGB Head at the start of the game is a 
non- voting member of the Politboro. At the end 



of each Replacement Phase, a vote is taken by 
the voting members of the Politboro to decide if 
the KGB Head will be made a voting member. 
A majority vote is required for passage; tie votes 
leave the KGB Head as a non-voting member. 
The Party Chief cannot vote on this matter unless 
controlled. Once the KGB Head is voted into 
"voting member" status, no more such votes are 
taken. The KGB Head's ability to Purge is not 
affected in any manner by this rule change. 

2. The Foreign Minister can nominate himself 
for Party Chief. 

3. The historical politicians (yellow side up) are 
older than all mythical politicians. Hence, histor- 
ical politicians win all age decisions. 

4. When an historical politician dies in office (not 
purged), the mythical second-generation politi- 
cian is placed in the People and does not "take 
the place of the historical character when the latter 
dies" (else Aparathschik becomes Party Chief in- 
stead of, say, Stalin). 

5. As long as Lenin is Party Chief, purged poli- 
ticians are placed in Siberia, not shot. 

6. For ease of play, players may declare initial 
IP after the politicians are placed in their slots 
as shown above. 

7. All KREMLIN Advanced Game rules and 
Revolution variant rules are in effect except as 
modified above. 

Afterward 

In case you are wondering whatever happened 
to these fellows, the following is a brief biography 
of each of the Politboro members and candidates 
present during the 12th Party Congress: 

Vladimir Lenin: Although Lenin's condition 
seemed to improve during October 1923, he 
suffered his fatal stroke on 2 1 lanuary 1924. His 
embalmed body was placed in Red Square, where 
it has remained on public display to this day. 

Felix Dzerzhinsky: While not a member of the 
Politboro (as a candidate) until 1924, he was the 
head of the Cheka, the first secret police organi- 
zation in Soviet Russia. A close follower of 
Lenin, he became head of the Cheka in Decem- 
ber 1917. In 1924, Dzerzinsky became a firm 
supporter of Stalin and was awarded control of 
the Supreme Economic Council. Two years later, 
during a session of the Central Committee at 
which his economic policies were being heatedly 
debated, he suddenly collapsed and died. The 
famous Tractor Works at Stalingrad were named 
for him. 

Grigori Zinoviev: After the 12th Party Con- 
gress, he soon sided with Stalin against Trotsky; 
but in 1925, supported by Lenin's widow, he 
joined with Trotsky against Stalin. This last ditch 
attempt to thwart Stalin was unsuccessful, and 
he was removed from all positions of power. He 
was expelled from the Party three times: 1927, 
1932, 1934. In 1935, he was imprisoned for 
"complicity" in Sergei Kirov's assassination (in 
fact, Kirov was probably murdered on Stalin's 
orders). The following year, in the first of Stalin's 
big "show trials", Zinoviev was convicted of 
treason and shot. 

Joseph Stalin: Stalin successfully weathered 
the storm of Lenin's Testament. Securing the sup- 
port of the Bukharin-Rykov-Tomsky faction in 
the Politboro, he routed the "Left Opposition" 



of Trotsky -Zi no viev-Kamene v. Then, in an 
about-face, he consolidated his power by adopt- 
ing most of the ' 'left Opposition' ' policies and 
removed the "Right Opposition" faction of 
Bukharin-Rykov-Tomsky from power in 1929. 
With his climb to absolute power complete, he 
purged all his old rivals in the "show trials" of 
the 1930s. Most were shot after their convictions. 
Stalin turned the USSR into a true world power 
during and after The Great Patriotic war. He died 
of a brain hemorrhage in 1953. 

Leon Trotsky: Perhaps the most famous of 
Stalin's opponents, he was likely favored by 
Lenin to be the latter' s successor. In the strug- 
gle for succession after Lenin's death, he con- 
sistently advocated a radically leftist course, 
seeing in the Soviet Union a springboard for 
world revolution (hence the " Trotsky ite Inter- 
nationalist" faction in KREMLIN). He opposed 
Stalin's idea of "socialism in one country". In 
1927 he was finally routed at the 15th Party Con- 
gress in December, where he was removed from 
the Politboro and expelled from the Party. In 
1 929, after first being exiled to Centra! Asia, he 
was even expelled from the Soviet Union. He 
continued a war of words with Stalin and 
Stalinism from abroad, writing numerous works, 
including The History of the Russian Revolution 
and The Revolution Betrayed. He was mortally 
wounded on 20 August 1940 at his residence in 
Mexico City by a Soviet OGPU agent. He died 
the following day. His unfinished biography of 
Joseph Stalin was published after the war. 

Lev Kamenev: Kamenev employed oppor- 
tunistic tactics following Lenin's death. He first 
joined Trotsky (his brother-in-law) and Zinoviev 
in opposing Stalin. He shifted to support Stalin, 
then shifted again to form a triumvirate with 
Zinoviev and Trotsky to oust Stalin in 1926. The 
attempt failed, and he was expelled from the Party 
in 1927. Although readmitted the following year 
after publically confessing his "errors", he was 
expelled again from the Party in 1932. Accused 
of "Trotsky ite conspiracy", he was found guilty 
(of course) and executed on 25 August 1936. 

Nikolai Bukharin: He sided with Stalin against 
the "Left Opposition" and so remained a mem- 
ber of the Politboro until 1928, when he was 
expelled from the Party for "falsifying Marxism" 
(after Stalin's about-face). Bukharin had been 
editor of Pravda since 1917; after confessing his 
"errors" , he was readmitted to the Party and all 
his high offices with the exception of the editor- 
ship. In 1932, he became editor of Izvestia. 
Accused of "Trotsky ite conspiracy", he was re- 
moved and expelled from the Party again in 1937. 
In the last of the "show trials", he was found 
guilty of high treason. He was shot on 13 March 
1938. 

Mikhail Tomsky: Although he is not depicted 
in Revolution, he was an important Politboro 
member at the 12th Party Congress. He also had 
considerable influence as chairman of the trade 
unions. He sided with Stalin against the "Left 
Opposition" of Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev, 
After Stalin's switch, Stalin attacked the "Right 
Opposition" of which Tomsky was a chief mem- 
ber. By 1930, Tomsky had been removed from 
all posts by Stalin. On 21 August 1936, he learned 
that as a result of testimony in the Zinoviev trial, 
he and Bukharin and Rykov were to be the sub- 
ject of further investigation. That very day, 
Tomsky committed suicide. 



43 



Aleksey Rykov: he suffered a similar fate to 
his fellow "Right Opposition" member Bukharin. 
After Stalin's about-face, Rykov was discredited. 
Although he recanted his views in 1929, he was 
dismissed from the Politboro in 1930. He served 
as commissar of Posts and Telegraph from 1931- 
1936, but was implicated in (fabricated) conspira- 
cies during the first two "show trials" of the 
Great Purge. In 1937, Rykov was arrested and 
expelled from the Party. In the third trial (March 
1938) he was convicted of treason and executed 
in Moscow. 

Mikhail Kalinin: In 1920, Lenin appointed 
Kalinin chairman of the All-Russian Central 
Executive Committee, a post he would hold for 
27 years. In 1936, his title was changed to chair- 
man of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet — 
essentially head of government. Although he 
served as such, he actually held little power, 
Kalinin at first had refused to acknowledge Stalin 
as a leader of the Party. He would say of Stalin, 
"That horse will someday drag our wagon into 
a ditch." Gradually, however, he turned against 
Stalin's enemies. He backed Stalin's attacks on 
both the "Left" and "Right" opposition factions. 
In March 1946, he retired due to poor health. He 
died in Moscow three months later. 

Vyacheslav Molotov; A candidate member of 
the Politboro since 1921 , he staunchly supported 
Stalin in his power struggle after Lenin's death. 
In 1925, he was awarded full membership in the 
Politboro. Five years later he became chairman 
of the Council of People's Commissars (i.e., de 
facto Prime Minister) , a post he held until 1 941 . 
In 1939, he was made Commissar for Foreign 
Affairs and soon thereafter negotiated the in- 
famous Nazi- Soviet Non- Aggression Pact. Dur- 
ing the Great Patriotic war, he arranged alliances 
with the United States and Great Britain, attended 
the Allied conferences at Teheran (1943), Yalta 
(1945) and Potsdam (1945), as well as the 1945 
San Francisco conference that established the 
United Nations. In 1948 he gave up the post of 
Foreign Minister, but resumed it after Stalin's 
death. He was dismissed by Khruschev in 1956 
after quarreling over de-Stalinization. He joined 
in an attempt to depose Khruschev in 1957, and 
was subsequently expelled from the Party (though 
he later served as ambassador to Outer Mongolia). 
He died in obscurity in 1986, 

Thus ends the story of the 12th Party Con- 
gress, loseph Stalin proved to be the winner in 
the power struggle following Lenin's death. It 
was truly a battle to the death, as most of his 
enemies and ex-allies found out. How did he 
manage it? Why wasn't Lenin's Testament 
Stalin's political death. Can Trotsky win against 
Stalin's powerful political machine? You can find 
out . . . but only if you fight (not merely "play") 
Revolution*. 

REVOLUTION, which consists of 26 new 
politicians (those lovable fellows mentioned in 
Mr. Ingalls' piece above), new Intrigue cards 
(designed to reflect the early days of the Party), 
and rules for the use of these, is sure to excite 
those readers who have come to enjoy KREMLIN. 
The REVOLUTION Variant Kit is available for 
$8.00 (plus the usual postage and handling; 
Maryland residents please add 5 % state sales tax) 
direct from The Avalon Hill Game Company. 




The 
Latest News 

In 

Competitive 

Gaming 



&rea IBetos 



For Today ... 
and Tomorrow 



BY DONALD S. BURDICK 



There will be a dose of views mixed 
with the news this time — this a response 
to the attack by Paul Worthington on 
AREA members and this column (See 
"Letters to the Editor" in Vol. 26, No. 4). 
But first the news: 

Play-by-electronic-mall activity in ASL 
is growing by leaps and bounds. Kevin 
Sheen (Scottsdale, AZ) has won the GEnie 

1990 AREA ASL Championship. The 

1991 tournament has already begun. A 
swell of interest has bouyed the partici- 
pation to 16 players from IS different 
states. The tourney will be run as a four- 
round Swiss system, meaning all the 
players will participate in each round. 
GEnie has decided to underwrite part of 
the tourney, offering $60 in connect time 
to the winner. Avalon Hill is chipping in 
with two signed copies of CODE OF 
BUSHIDO for first and second place. The 
winner will also pick up a trophy and a 
bit of cash. 

In the FTF arena, the Great Plains ASL 
AREA Championships are being organized 
for the midwest. Currently there are 14 
players in the Sioux City-Sioux Falls sec- 
tion, and a possible 16-person tourna- 
ment shaping up in the Omaha-Council 
Bluffs region. Letters have been received 
from Minneapolis and Kansas City ex- 
pressing interest. Anyone in the Iowa- 
Nebraska-South Dakota-Kansas area 
who would like to participate in an ASL 
FTF tournament should write Russ 
Gifford (320 East 27th, South Sioux City, 
NE 68776). 

Another newsworthy development is 
the introduction of an electronic edition 
of AREA News. The electronic edition is 
a joint effort by Russ Gifford and myself 
that appears monthly. It originates on 
the GEnie system, but may be freely 
downloaded and transferred to other sys- 
tems. As regular readers of this column 
know, there is a lag between the time I 
write the column and the time it appears 
in The GENERAL. Now, those of you who 
have a computer and a modem can get 
your AREA News while it's still fresh. To 
reach AREA News on GEnie, you can 
type "M805" and set the category to 
"21". Then you can access the AREA 
News as topic "4". You might also find 
the latest news about AvalonCon in topic 



"6" and info on the ASL competition 
mentioned above in topic "2". 

That brings me to the issues raised by 
Paul Worthington. For those who may 
have missed his letter, he asserted that 
this column was so limited in its cover- 
age that the qualification ' 'For Players of 
the Classics Only" should be added to the 
sub-title. He charged that the narrow 
concentration on the "classics" was 
typical of AREA's top players and called 
them stagnant snobs. He further charged 
that a good portion of the AREA member- 
ship has an arrogant attitude that turns 
competition with them into an unpleasant 
experience. Finally, he objected to the 
two-tenths of a column-inch or so devoted 
to the pet peeves of the AREA members 
who are written up in the "Meet the 50" 
personal sketches. 

I will respond to each of these issues 
in turn. First, in his implication that 
there is an unwritten restriction limiting 
AREA News coverage to the ' 'classics' ' , 
he could hardly be more wrong. Not only 
do I welcome the opportunity to report 
news of AREA competition in any game 
whatsoever, I would actively resist any 
attempt to restrict the coverage to spe- 
cific games. If the coverage seems to be 
concentrated in a small number of titles, 
it's because that's where the action is. I'll 
gladly pass along information about 
ladders, tournaments, or any other 
organized AREA competition in any game 
that comes to my attention — but I can't 
report what I don't have. 

If anyone reading this is dissatisfied 
about the lack of activity in his favorite 
game, I have a challenge for him. Instead 
of complaining and name-calling, why 
not take a constructive approach and try 
to organize something yourself. That's 
the approach Russ Gifford took with 
ASL, and the results have been dramati- 
cally successful. As Russ well knows, 
anyone who takes this route can count 
on getting publicity for his efforts in the 
AREA News (at least as long as I'm writ- 
ing the column). 

As for the charge that AREA members 
are stagnant snobs because they prefer 
to play the older games, I assert that it 
is the height of arrogance for Paul Wor- 
thington (or anyone else) to prescribe for 
others what their taste in games should 
be. There is plenty of room in our hobby 



for a variety of interests. The use of 
derogatory names for gamers whose 
tastes are different leads to a divisiveness 
that is counterproductive and utterly 
unnecessary. If historical gamers and 
competitive gamers can maintain an 
open-minded mutual respect, there is 
much they could learn from each other 
that will enhance their enjoyment of the 
hobby. 

To back up his charge that AREA 
members tend to make unpleasant, arro- 
gant opponents, Mr. Worthington cites 
an example from his own experience 
with a member of AREA'S top 50. It is 
usually best to hear from both sides 
before making a final judgement in cases 
like this, but suppose for the sake of 
argument we grant that Mr. Worthing- 
ton' s AREA opponent was a bad apple. 
Does that justify the castigation of a 
whole group of wargarners because they 
do not belong to AREA? From my own 
experience, I know there are many mem- 
bers who are courteous, pleasant people 
in addition to being worthy opponents. 
Mr. Worthington acknowledges that 
there are exceptions to his characteriza- 
tion, but he leaves them unnamed and 
therefore every bit as subject to his 
broad-based denunciation as his intended 
targets. It is much better to deal with dis- 
agreeable opponents on an individual 
basis. If you have unpleasant experiences 
with certain opponents, let your war- 
gaming friends know about them. The 
word will eventually get out. 

Finally, Mr. Worthington's objection 
to the brief "pet peeve" item in the 
sketches seems rather petty, espeeiaUy 
considering the extensive complaining he 
does in his letter. Everyone who is selected 
for a sketch is asked to fill out a form on 
which the "pet peeve" is one of the items. 
The purpose is obviously to round out the 
personal description by presenting dis- 
likes as well as likes. If Mr, Worthington 
finds this annoying, there is a very easy 
remedy. Just don't read it. 

While I'm on the subject, there is one 
other criticism of AREA that merits some 
attention. Paul Worthington alludes to it 
in his letter, but David Mattson expresses 
it better in his comments in his ' 'Meet the 
SO" sketch in the same issue. Some mem- 
bers of AREA, after achieving a high 
ranking, turn conservative and refuse to 
engage in contests where there is a 
reasonable chance they could lose rating 
points. I can understand how someone 
who has struggled to get the points might 
take this viewpoint, but it is shortsighted. 
High ratings that are so jealously pro- 
tected in this way will eventually become 
meaningless. I am trying to combat this 
attitude by promoting the ladders and 
tournaments, and by giving publicity in 
this column to those who participate. 
Readers can then see for themselves who 
is wiRmg to validate his rating by putting 
it at risk— and who isn't. 



COMPUTER 




™p^ 
^^^ 



Online 

By John Huff 



* 



In the last installment, I expounded on where 
I believe the design of computer games to be 
headed. This issue I shall stick a little closer to 
home. Specifically, let's look at the role the com- 
puter can fill for the "serious" gamer. 

F see a number of possible answers. The first 
would be to assist the board gamer in his play 
of "paper" games. This role can be filled in a 
number of ways. 

One would be simply the adjudication of 
rules. A clever person can put the rules, maps 
and relevant data into a relatively small computer 
(depending on the game) and use the computer 
to resolve the legality and success of the players' 
moves. Our ASL-GAP program, written by Chris 
Gammon, is a step in that direction. 

A second approach would be as a "tutor". 
Using graphics and text, such a program could 
walk the player through the first few turns and 
teach the basics of the game. Advanced programs 
could do the same thing, but show how to make 
use of some of the more elaborate rules— and 
perhaps even offer hints on strategy and tactics. 
No one has tried this as yet, but it is worthy of 
consideration for the more complex boardgames. 

Yet a third approach would be to have the 
computer act as a " 'command staff' ' . The player 
would keep the computer current on all positions 
and intelligence, and the computer would appraise 
the player of all his current options. This would 
entail a lot of work (at both ends), irritate 
opponents to no end, and I question the long-term 
value of such a program. But it has been sug- 
gested in the past by others looking to integrate 
computers with paper gaming. 

Another role the computer can fill for gamers 
lies in the telecommunications field. A number 
of electronic bulletin boards are currentiy active, 
allowing players to exchange both messages and 
moves in a way that makes most other PBM 
systems obsolete. Our recent inclusion into the 
GEnie network has provided us with an indica- 
tion of just how much interest there is in gaming 
"online", and this could be a major factor in 
re-energizing traditional boardgaming. On both 
GEnie and CompuServe, you can find live 
opponents of all stripe from all over the country 
(or the world for that matter). Even on the inex- 
pensive local BBSs ("Bulletin Board Systems"), 
you can find similar resources, although of a 
more limited scope. 

"So, " I hear you scream, "why not just put 



the whole bloody game on the computer and be 
done with it?' ' For most people, that's the best 
course of action — and is in fact why computer 
companies are in business. But, for the grognard 
who likes to shove little bits of cardboard or lead 
around, who finds even the best computer 
opponents a pale shadow of real competition, this 
is no answer at all. In other words, for those who 
find computer games uninspiring, there is still 
a role for the computer in their hobby. 

Lastly, what may be the ultimate use for the 
computer at our current level (from the garners 
perspective) is multi-player gaming. In con- 
junction with AUS and GEnie, we are involved 
with the project to bring multi-player DP LOMACY 
into the online market. This could be the next 
major revolution in gaming. An online game pro- 
gram that simply requests the seven players to 
study the situation, put in their moves at their con- 
venience, allows for anonymous communications 
between them, and then resolves each move could 
be the greatest blessing for gaming in the past 
30 years. 

The feet that many computer game companies 
are looking into "networked" games is an in- 
dication of where things may be heading. For us 
(Avalon Hill), online DIPLOMACY is just the 
first step. If it is successful, a host of other 
popular multi-player games will begin appearing. 
For those who are willing to get their feet wet 
by dipping into the online pool, the future of 
gaming looks very bright. 

For those readers who may have become in- 
terested in what GEnie has to offer, but didn't 
know how to find out more, I can offer the 
following information. The Voice customer serv- 
ice can be reached by phone at 1-800-638-9636. 
The Modem signup can be reached at 
1-800-638-8369. To connect to the latter, follow 
this procedure; 

1. Set your modem software for half duplex 
(local echo) at 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud. 

2. Dial toll-free 1-800-638-8369. Upon con- 
nection, enter HHH. 

3. At the U#= prompt, enter 
XTX99544,GENIE and then press Return. 

4. Have a major credit card or your check- 
ing account number ready, . 



45 



oar Sir, 

lam very enthusiastic about your Avalon- 
Cm proposal. (Hopefully, it will not go [he way 
of ihe PANZERBUTZ redo and/or Red Sky at 
Memittg, etc.) Clearly, the key here is actually 
placing the games. It's about time! I can't help 
bUL be reminded of a Robin Williams" line: 
"Reality: what a concept!" 

In preparing to meet this, goal, please give 
careful consideration la the structure of the tour- 
nimenii. Single elimination means thai 50% of 
the players get to play iheir favorite game in com- 
petition exactly owe* and another 25 % only twice. 
There are several alternative systems, and I hope 
thai you will select those which allow all the 
players entered in the tournaments to play several 
rounds. 

Speaking for myself. I have no delusions of 
grandeur concerning taking the "National VTTiP 
title." But if 1 go to PA for a weekend, I better 
get lo play VITP niore than once, or my likeli- 
hood of attending AvalonCon II will be statisti- 
cally less than Ihc probability that I will live long 
enough to sec "Counter Attack ftV published. 

Michael Knauiz 
Applcton, Wisconsin 

Ytiar .-■-. <"■.' on tournament format is WtU 
inkrit. However, I'm sure you will admit that 
single elimination formats also have merit — 
especially where many entrants are involved. Just 
as ihtrt: are those wlw would like to spend their 
attire weekend playing atdv their favorte game. 
there are others who would like to move on to 
■afar events for a change of pace (especially after 
having heat knocked out of the running for any 
ckunputnship). 'IJiat is why we 'it be running lots 
of "quick-play" multi-player tournaments on 
Saturday and Sunday, in any case, the decision 
is not ours to make. Rather, it is that of the 
respective GA4$. Readers who plan ro attend ore 
ftrgfd to write in nidi their suggestions on format 
fir the tournament in their favorite. And T as each 
tkmrMmter is required to recruit two assistant 
G.\h in rule in his place should he be absent or 
involved in a match requiring a ruling, if you 
volunteer as an assistant GM, you just may be 
able to convince the GM of the wisdom of your 
prrferred format. Our only requirement is that 
the GMs inform Don Greenwood of the format 
to he used in lime to advise pre-registrants of just 
what they're getting into in each event hosted. 

***** 



iU- IV.:;-r 

Let's correct some misconceptions in your 
"Wings Over Korea" article (Vol. 26, No. 3). 
The first operational jet Tighter was the Gloster 
Meteor by Great Britain in June 1 944. The Me-26 
was operational in August 1944. On July 27 1 
1944, .i Meteor destroyed a V-l flying bomb. 
You may not count that as combat, so lcl + s con- 
aider the Me-262 as the first jet in combat. The 
sole reusnn the Me-262 was first was because the 
mighty Sih Air Force kepi on coming in great 
numbers— and nothing could slop the US Air 
Force. 

In "Night Fighters over Korea", you state 
that the Marines used techniques pioneered by 
the Luftwaffe. Huh? Great Britain pioneered the 
techniques used against ni^hl bombers in 1940, 
AEso, in the Pacific Theater, the US Navy and 
Marines had a very effective night lighter force. 
Night attacks against the fleet were never a major 
problem, and they never learned this from the 
Luftwaffe t For more information, read Ace by 
Bruce Porter. 

Let's give credit where credit is due, 
Leonard Krol 
Chicago, Illinois 



Letters to the Editor 



***** 



Dear Hex. 

Just a quick, informal note . * , 
I often read, but seldom enter, the contests 
sitce ihey often require a detailed knowledge of 
ihc game and rules. The use of vehicle identifi- 
cation as an alicmaiive to the usual coniest I 
found to be interesting- Thank you. Even those 
folks without the MBTgnmc could use the con- 
iest as a learning toot , I happen to own the game, 
and will try to find the time lo set up and follow 
the replay sometime soon. The contest was (for 
mc)nol a pushover; 1 found myself very unsure 
on several identifications. Congratulations to the 
author of this contest ... in addition to being 
Fun, it was a great educational tool- And please 
continue the good work in The GENERAL and 



the contests,; they are intriguing even though I 
lack the time (and often the ability) to participate. 

Richard Renncr 
San Jose, California 

Mr. Rentier was. unfortunately, one of she 
many who thought the Luchs was a Russian 
BRDM- Recently, f have been considering the 
move to drop the contest from our format. Well- 
crafted clujllenges based on a specific game sit- 
uation have become increasingly mare difficult 
to devise, and reader response to them has eased 
off over the past few years. As the games have 
become more complex, the conresr or its solution 
has too often been marred by error on the part 
of rhe designers, in short, the effort and space 
no longer justifies the return, it should be noted, 
however, tliat Contest iff SI was the most popular 
—in terms of responses from readers— and cer- 
tainly one of the quickest to devise that we \e run 
in many years. So, we 're going to experiment 
with this feature over the next few issues, in the 
hopes of making the fit n more accessible to alt 
and the effort less intense {and error-prone) for 
ourselves. 

• •••• 



Dear Mr- Man in. 

While reading Mr. Paul Worthinglon's letter 
lo the editor in Vol. 26, No. 4, it appears to 
me he dislikes the ib Top 50" in general and 
me in particular. While 1 have never met Mr. 
WoTlhington. either in person or by PBM, it 
seems he has drawn some very distinct opinion 
toward the AREA, While 1 can speak only for 
myself and none of the other 49 on the "Top 50" 
list, I would like to point oul a couple of things 
to Mr. Wonhmgton, 

First being that my experiences with the 
""Top 50" opponents have been very favorable. 
Over my 15 years of gaming, 1 have played Mr. 
Burdick and lost, Mr. Sutton and splii, and Mr. 
Landry and won. To a man they were gentlemen, 
and 1 hope consider me the same, I should point 
out lhai when 1 played all these gcnllcmcn, 1 
wasn't necessarily in the "Top 50". 

Secondly * let me iry to explain to Mr. Wor- 
■hingion why my "pet peeve" is late moves. I 
live in rural New York state and 100% of my 
gaming is PBM, When 1 accept a match, we sign 
the standard "Code of Conduct" form. On this 
form it is agreed that each player has a certain 
time frame to move. This keeps the game mov- 
ing and allows each player to have an idea when 
he can expect a move in the game. My pet peeve 
is with those who continually take months lo 
respond and eventually fade away without the 
courtesy of an explanation. I can't speak to why 
Mr. Wonhington feels as he does. However, I 
have found in my 15 years of gaming that 
courtesy begets courtesy and respect begcis 
respect. 

Lynn Barlow 

Mt. Marion* New York 

• •*•* 

Dear Mr, Greenwood, 

1 grew up on SPI products. My father bought 
me a subscription to &£7"for Christmas when 1 
was 12, and 1 was completely hooked, J had 
already dreamed up a couple of crude games of 
my own* without any idea that other people were 
interested in this stuff too, and that J could just 
go in the store and buy such games! 

Later, when I returned from my first tour of 
duty in Germany in *83 lo find that SPI had 
folded. 1 was very disappointed. More and more, 
the industry seemed lo be leaning towards role- 
playing., which I never cared for at all. For 
whatever reason, SPI had made me feel + "con- 
nected" to wargaming. as well as covering the 
topics I had an interest in. 

This is what Avalon Hill must capture! The 
Sense that AH is a Very Open nud Accessible 
group of people jusi like me, all of us sharing 
this strange and wonderful interest in wargames. 
It's (hat sense of inclusion in a public community 
that ically seems lo be missing from what has 
become an industry searching for ever more 
customers. 

AvalonCon's just what the doctor ordered! 
Even though 1 only own only 12 of your games. 



1 fully agree with the idea of just AH/Victury 
games being represented. This community needs 
leadership, and if you're in a position to provide 
it, then do sol No desperate competition for a 
dwindling market making us all feel like targets 
for a bunch of salemen (and I'm a salesman by 
profession). Just a great environment for meet- 
ing people with a common interest, and having 
at it. This is ihc kind of thing that will inevita- 
bly result in a resurgence of inters! in the hobby 
by building up its foundation. I will definitely be 
attending (AFRIKA KORPS and WS&IM). 

Jonathan A, White 

East Amherst. New York 

• *••* 

Dear Mr. Martin, 

I'm sending you some small corrections for 
my article, "Being Your Own King 1 ' (Vol. 26, 
No. 4), Sorry for the delay h but the mail belwccn 
Spain and the USA seems to be quite slow, 

6.6; line S, clarification: " 'The player must roll 
two dice for the noble." The dice must be rolled 
every time the affected noble is involved m 
combat , 

10; addition: "Beaufort and Stafford are not con- 
sidered relatives of any oLhe prince for the ef- 
fects of Rule II," 

11; line 9, correction: il {even as per 3. above)" 
should read *' (except as per B. above)", 

I would like to congratulate whoever was 
responsible for the rewrite of the article. I recog- 
nize thai the original one (which was quite longer 
and has features like "trial for high treason" or 
the possibility of Stafford and Beaufort reappear- 
ing after death for unlimited times) provided a 
nearly unending game. This can be interesting 
for people so fond of the Wars of the Roses like 
me (in fact, I'm the only Spaniard being a mem- 
ber of the British "Richard 111 Society"), but 
which can exasperate the average gamer. Would 
il be possible to know who rewrote it? It delights 
me how much he (or she) has increased the play- 
Hbility. 

On the other hand, if anybody is interested 
in playing the original endless variant, just send 
me a $ASE and I'll send him a copy of the 
original article. Thank you for the time you've 
spent on the whole subject and please continue 
the good work you arc doing. 

Gabriel Gonzalez-Ferrer 
Barcelona, Spain 

The revamping of Mr. Gonzalez-Ferrer 's 
version was rhe effort of a couple of ptaytester 
friends of mine and myself I then edited the piece 
to take into account their views. For those who 
may wish to obtain the original, Gabriel's address: 
Provema 383. 4o. la, . OBB2S-Barcelona, Spain, 

***** 

Dear Sir: 

I'd like 10 comment on a couple of items dis- 
cussed in recent issues of The GENERAL. A few 
issues back, Mr. Greenwood was lamenting the 
fact that sales of UP FRONT while respectiblc, 
were d isnppoi nti ng . He blamed the game' s failure 
lo capture a wider audience on two points: one. 
inclusion of vehicles which diluted the infantry- 
combat focus: and two, a reluctance of SL/ASL 
grognards tike myself to embrace any system 
without a hexagon formal- U is this latter point 
that 1 wish to refute. 

As a veteran SQUAD LEADER enthusiast 
(my copy has a purple boxlop) who has moved 
on to ASL. I quickly purchased UP FRONT when 
it appeared. 1 liked the subject and saw immedi- 
atcly hos this card-based system Was actually a 
better simulation of the chaos of tactical combat 
than SL/ASL and was easier to play as well . 

What went wrong? The Avalon Hill Game 
Company killed UP FRONTaad my enthusiasm 
for the game by failing to realize that the cards 
are to UP FRONT what the boards arc lo SL/ASL. 
There are now two published expansions for UP 
FRONT. Neither of these came with new terrain 
cards. Instead, one gets new nationalities, new 
counters, and new terrain rules that allcr the 
character! sties of the terrain cards in play. 

1 hate altered terrain rules! How much suc- 
cess would SQUAD IJLADFR have enjoyed if 



only boards 1-4 had been published? How about 
the visual appeal of a WOA scenario on boards 
1-4 with special rules so that all woods are 
hammada, level one is scrub, streams are wadts. 
etc? The point is that any expansion of UP 
FRONT should begin wich publishing new ter- 
rain (in this case cards)* just as SL/ASL has done 
to keep thai system fresh. 

Concerning the format of The GENERAL, 
I like it! My favorite game is ASL, and of course 
I give high marks to issues that contain ASL 
articles. But if s not the only game, and 1 enjoy 
reading articles about other titles even if] don't 
own them (yet). How about featuring BLfTZ- 
KRIEG in your magazine in the future? I joined 
M-i IKS over a year ago and have been having 
a lot of fun playing by mail. T bought BL two 
weeks ago thinking it would be a good candidate 
for PBM. After setting it up and playing a few 
turns, I am really pleasantly surprised at how 
fresh and appealing this "classic" remains. This 
is a great game! Why noi promote it in The 
GENERAL by printing some articles on il? 

Lasily, where is the promised PBM chapter 
for ASL? I know ASL iy hardly the ideal game 
for such, but people are playing it by mail any- 
way, so we may as well have a standard. You 
don't have to wail lo put it out in a module. You 
could sell it by mail as a variant as you arc doing 
with the TP:S counters, or you could sell it as 
an envelope module similar to DESERT WAR. 
Keep up the good work. 

Donald Mcnig 
Pickerington. Ohio 

To take your points in order, for they are all 
good ones — the terrain cards for UP FRONT, 
which comes first; the chicken or the egg? UP 
FRONT modules did not receive new playing 
cards because the basic game never sold welt 
enough to justify the expense. ASL enthusiasts get 
new boards because the basic game sold enough 
to justify expensive modules, which also continue 
to sett well. 

As for providing some coverage for BLITZ- 
KRIEG, as long as the game remains in our line, 
I 'd tie glad to run articles on it. However, to do 
that, I need some welt-written and thoughtful sub- 
missions from you arid your fellows. I can't print 
what I don 't have. Unlit such appears, I am 
afraid that you 11 have so make do with rhe 63 
articles published previously in TJie GENERAL 
(from Vol. 2 through Vol. 23). 

Finally, with regard to she FBM system for 
ASL, we have a number of other projects under 
way already- The completion of the PTO rules 
and she issuing of a solitaire system (also 
"promised") will keep us occupied for some 
time. Patience. The release of a standardized 
FBM system ft not a function of cost or space 
or packaging, but of our time. At the moment, 
it is midway down the list of projects we plan on 
accomplishing to complete the system, 

• •••• 

Dear Mr. Martin: 

Re "Philosophy. Part 136" (Vol. 26, Ht>. 4). 
If people are so "naive" to think mapboards cost 
a few bucks more than mapsheets, why are they 
priced thai way by Avalon Hill? Just one example: 
the cheap little mapsheets that come with 
AMBUSH cosi $5 each, if bought separately. 
while the very attractive mapboards that come 
with DEVILS DEN cost $6 each. What gives? 

Jim Sandefur 
Boulder* Colorado 

The price you pay for individual parts has 
very little to do with their actual cost af manufac- 
ture. We price game parts uniformly at a per- 
centage above the total cost of the game, Wlmt 
you are actually paying for is the expense of our 
storing and listing for independent sale an in- 
eventory of low-volume separate parts for 
tmndreds of games— rather than the more effi- 
cient practice of just selling boxed games. Tfte 
accountants, having studied the income and the 
trosts associated with selling parts, have long 
since advocated abolishment of the "Parts" 
business altogether. Make no mistake, the 
DEVIL 'S DEN mapboards cost far more than the 
AMBUSH mapsheets to produce. We don l reflect 
that significanr difference in the Parts List simply 
because we aren 't in the business of selling game 
parts solely. We offer replacement parts to our 
titles simply as a servicer Supposedly, the only 
reason you 'd order such items is because you 've 
occasionally tost or damaged the original. If a 
significant number of customers did order parts 
on a regular basis, we would have to increase 
rhe prices of the mounted boards vis-a-vis paper 
mapsheets proportionally. 



46 



WHY 4 FOOTBALL GAMES? 

To give YOU a choice! Here are 4 great football 
board games that have stood the test of time! 




Would 30 years be a good test? 
That's how long Football Strategy 

has charmed table-top gamers. 
It's the first board game to 
emphasize defense as well as 
offense! Called by Sports Illus- 
trated in 1961 , "the best football 
game ever invented. " The game 
of think and double-think! On 
defense you secretly select a 
defense you think will stop your 
opponent's next play. He, in turn, 
tries to outguess you by calling a 
play from among 20 on the matrix 
chart patterned after real pro 
plays. Each offense and defense 
selection is cross-indexed to 
obtain the gain or loss. An ad 
executive once said, "when you 
can get top-notch ad men to pass 
up expense account luncheons to 
play Football Strategy, you have 
a real attraction going for you. " 
Another eulogized, "as ex-college 
players, we have been attracted 
by many good football games, but 
none have approached the realism 
and excitement of Football 
Strategy.'' 



Tfie Game of Professional Football 

..'.vhcn- YOU sretha Coscfr.., 
YOU caar Efre Pla^s afi Otfensa... 
YOU set (she Strategy on Defense. 



I 



! 



Paydirt — first published in 1976 
and still going strong! Paydirt is 
FOOTBALL STRATEGY tailored to 
the 28 pro teams. Every pro team 
has been computer-analyzed— 
their strengths and weaknesses are 
coded onto special PlaytfVction 
Charts. These charts are your 
tickets to realistic action. With them 
you can call all the shots — on 
offense and defense — for every pro 
squad. You can repiay the com- 
plete pro season, playoffs, Super 
Bowl. ..until your team wins it all. 
Maybe Hosteller and the Giants 
shouldn't have won the Super Bowl. 
Paydirt gives you the chance to 
find out who really belonged in the 
playoffs. Each team should produce 
as they did in real life. Except — you 
are the coach. And your decisions 
may be the difference between who 
makes it to the Super Bowl and 
which teams are the also-rans. If 
you already play Paydirt, simply 
order the 1990 Season Play/Action 
Charts only. Past seasons (listed 
below) also available. 



DOWL DOUND 




Bowl Bound Is PAYDIRT tailored 
to college football. Now in its 3rd 
edition, the game comes com- 
plete with Play/Action Team 
Charts of what the computer says 
were the best 20 college teams of 
the 80's. Here, you can match up 
thesegreatteamstofindoutwho 
really was the greatest of the era. 
Each team's real-life perform- 
ances have been encoded on 
both the Offense and Defense 
color-coded Team Charts for each 
team. The depth of this analysis 
is so great that we are confident 
you will find this game unrivaled 
for excitement and true-to-life 
results. However, because all 20 
are nearly even In over-all ability, 
It Is YOU, as coach, whose play 
choices make the difference. A 
few of the 20 teams you get 
include '88 Notre Dame, '87 
Miami, '84 Srigham Young, and 
'83 Nebraska. If you already have 
thts 3rd edition Bowl Bound, 
extra sets of Team Charts with 
teams that go back as far as 1 941 
are available (see below). 



Available wherever games are sold. If not available locally, feel free to order direct. 




Statls Pro Football is the be-all 

and end-all of statistical football 
board games. It comes with 
individual "stat" cards tor every 
player of every pro team includ- 
ing linemen — that's well over 
1 ,000 Player Cards, ft differs from 
other football board games in that 
YOU, as coach, determine which 
players play on each separate 
play. You assign your best blockers 
and tacklers to key areas, your 
best pass defenders to guard the 
opponent's best receivers, and 
your most explosive offensive 
threats to places where they can 
do the most damage. 
If you already own Statis Pro 
Football, order the 1990 Season 
Player Cards only. Past seasons 
also available below. 
For information on our computer 
games for the Mac. IBM. Apple 
and C-64 computers. Send for our 
Sports Catalog. 



m 



The Avalcm Hill Game Company 

PIVISION OF MONARCH AVALON. INC. 

Dept. 4517 Harford Rd.. Baltimore, MD 21214 



NAME. 




ADDRESS. 



□ Check 
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Please Indicate Method of Payment: 

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up ID •■;,:•: S3 00 $ SD.Ol 10 S 75.00 $ 7.00 

£10.01 10 125.00 $4.00 $ 7501 10 $100.00 $ 8.00 

$25.01 10 $35.00 $5.00 $100.01 lo $125. 00 $9.00 

$35.01 10 I5O.00 S6.C0 $125.00 & Over $10.00 

CANADA & MEXICO— double IhQ above. ALL FOREIGN— triple me above. 



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For quick 

credit card purchasing, 

call TOLL FREE 

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Please send me: 

Football Strategy @$16 

Paydirt @$25 

Bowl Bound @$20 

Statls Pro Football @$36 

Paydirt Past Season Team Charts @$12 ea. 

D 83 O 84 D 86 □ 87 D 88 D 89 D 90 
Paydirt Past Season Team Charts @$5 ea. 

□ 77 □ 80 a 81 a 85 

Bowl Bound Team Charts @$12 ea. 

□ Team Set I (1960-70 teams) 
D Team Set II (1941-78 teams) 

Statis Pro Football Past Season Player Cards @$17 ea. 

D 83 D 85 D 86 D 87 D 88 D 89 D 90 
Statis Pro Football Past Season Player Cards @$15 ea. 

□ 57 □ 81 



47 




THE GREAT TEAMS 



By James C. Gordon 



Make no mistake, the ten squads drawn from 
the 1960s, 70s and '80s to make up the STATIS- 
PRO BASEBALL GREAT TEAMS package are 
truly "great" teams, with a combined .636 
winning percentage and numerous post-season 
victories. This formidable group includes four 
world champions, three teams which lost in the 
World Series, and three contenders that narrowly 
missed the October classic. Every team here is 
a legitimate ' 'great team' ' , even though other ball 
clubs may have had better years. SPBGT is an 
excellent mix of teams— but that should not be 
confused with the "greatest teams" represent- 
ing each ball club. The game features the well- 
known STATFS-PRO system with Fast Action 
Cards, a base- 8 number system, and individual 
player stats. The rosters can handle a full season 
of games with nine teams carrying 10 pitchers 
and 15 fielders. 

These teams are champions or contenders who 
excelled against their contemporaries, and each 
team has the capability to beat any other team 
in the ballpark (errh . . . box). Every ball club 
herein can hit for average, hit for power, play 
defense, run the bases, pitch, and use the intan- 
gibles (bunting, clutch defense or batting, throw- 
ing ratings, etc.) to win. One item lacking from 
this game, however, is a statistical companion. 
Baseball fans like baseball numbers, and a ready 
reference guide to the basic batting and pitching 
totals is one means for assessing individual 
players— or entire teams. 

The 1961 Yankees are a perennial favorite, 
a team of power hitters led by Roger Maris (61 
HRs, 142 RBIs) and Mickey Mantle (54 HRs, 
128 RBIs, .317 average), backed up by Bill 
Skowron (28 HRs), Elston Howard (21 HRs, 
.348 average), Yogi Berra (22 HRs), Johnny 
Blanchard (21 Hrs, .305 average). And there's 
Whitey Ford (25-4), Ralph Terry (16-3) and Bill 
Stafford (14-9) on the mound. 

Likewise, the 1962 Giants feature Willie 
Mays (49 HRs, 141 RBIs, .304 average), Orlando 
Cepeda (35 HRs, 1 14 RBIs, .306 average), Felipe 
Alou (25 HRs, 98 RBIs, .316 average) and a 
young Willie McCovey (20 HRs in 229 at-bats) 
providing the power. Leading the team, one has 
Jack Sanford (24-7). Billy O'Dell (19-14), Juan 
Marichal (18-11) and Biily Pierce (16-6). 

Los Angeles deserves a championship crown, 
although their "also-ran" team of 1962 barely 
missed the series in a three-game playoff against 
the Giants. This great team features Maury Wills 
(104 stolen bases, .299 average) and an outfield 



of Tommy Davis (27 HRs, 153 RBIs, .346 aver- 
age), Willie Davis (21 HRs, 85 RBIs, .285), 
Frank Howard (31 HRs, 119 RBIs, .296). For 
pitchers they have Don Drysdale (25-9), Johnny 
Podres (15-13) and Sandy Koufax (14-7), who 
was just beginning his climb toward greatness. 

The Twins used to brag about their 1965 
team, which lost in the series despite the batting 
of Tony Oliva (16 HRs, 98 RBIs, .321 average), 
Harmon Killebrew (25 HRs, 75 RBIs), Bobby 
Allison (23 HRs, 78 RBIs), Don Mincher (22 
HRs, 65 RBIs)and the pitching of "Mudcat" 
Grant (21-7), Jim Kaat (18-11) and Jim Perry 
(12-7). Likewise, the 1969 Orioles lost to the 
"Miracle Mets" even with "Boog" Powell (37 
HRs, 121 RBIs, .304 average), two Robinsons 
(Frank: 32 HRs, 100 RBIs, .308; Brooks: 23 
HRs, 84 RBIs), Paul Blair (26 HRs, 76 RBIs), 
Mike Cuellar (23-11), Dave McNalley (20-7), 
and Jim Palmer (16-4). 

From 1975, we have the ' 'Big Red Machine" 
that won 109 games behind the hitting of Pete 
Rose (.317), Joe Morgan (17 HRs, 94 RBIs, 
.327, 67 steals), Johnny Bench (28 HRs, 110 
RBIs), Tony Perez (20 HRs, 109 RBIs), George 
Foster (23 HRs, 78 RBIs, .300 average) and Ken 
Griffey (.305). They also had a flexible staff with 
six pitchers recording 10 or more wins (Gary 
Nolan, Jack Billingham, Don Gullett, Fred 
Norman, Pat Darcy, Clay Kirby). Although the 
A's posted good numbers, they failed to "keep 
it alive in '75" after three series wins. The efforts 
of Reggie Jackson (36 HRs, 104 RBIs), Gene 
Tenace (29 HRs, 87 RBIs), Billy Williams (23 
HRs, 81 RBIs), Claudell Washington (.308 aver- 
age), Joe Rudi (2 1 HRs, 75 RBIs), and Vida Blue 
(22 wins) and Ken Holtzman (18 wins) were 
small consolation. 

Yet another bridesmaid was the 1976 Phillies. 
They missed the series entirely, while a later 
squad won it all. Yet their big contributors were 
second to none: Mike Schmidt (38 HRs, 107 
RBIs), Greg Luzinski (21 HRs, 95 RBIs, .340 
average), Garry Maddox (.330), Jay Johnston 
(.318), Steve Carlton (20-7), Jim Lonborg 
(18-10), Larry Christenson (13-8), and Jim Kaat 
(12-14). 

The 1984 Tigers offer us Lance Parrish (33 
HRs, 98 RBIs), Kirk Gibson (27 HRs, 91 RBIs), 
Chet Lemon (20 HRs, 76 RBIs), Darrell Evans 
(16 HRs, 63 RBIs), Alan Trammel! (.316 aver- 
age); Jack Morris (19-11), Dan Petry (18-8) and 
Milt Wilcox (17-8) on the mound. And the Mets 
are ably represented by the 1986 squad of Darryl 



Strawberry (27 HRs, 93 RBIs), Keith Hernandez 
(83 RBIs, .310), Gary Carter (24 HRs, 105 
RBIs), Len Dykstra (.295) and a pitching staff 
of Bob Ojeda (18-5), Dwight Gooden (17-6), Sid 
Fernandez (16-6) and Ron Darling (15-6). 

These teams all feature power hitters and 
power pitchers, and every squad highlights a few 
players who had an outstanding year at the plate 
or the mound — in some cases the best year of their 
career. Maris, Sanford, Wills, Tommy Davis, 
Drysdale, Grant, Powell, Morgan, and Morris 
aU top the list of all-star performers. Most of these 
teams relied on the big hits and the strikeout 
rather than on the stolen base or the hit-and-run. 
When using them in SP BASEBALL, look for high 
scoring games and never a dull moment. 

During a full simulated season of round-robin 
play using these "Great Teams", players which 
appear on two rosters can spend half the season 
with each team, or split their services proportion- 
ally according to the number of games in which 
they did appear. The six players affected here are 
Jim Kaat (Minnesota -45, Philadelphia-38), Jim 
Perry (Minnesota-36, Oakland- 15), Merv Retten- 
mund (Baltimore-78, Cincinnati -61), Glenn 
Abbott (Oakland-30, Detroit-] 3), George Foster 
(Cincinnati- 125, NY Mets-62), and Howard 
Johnson (Detroit-121, NY Mets-80). A third 
alternative (one I like) is to keep all duplicate 
cards active in order to preserve the integrity of 
each composite roster, despite the schizophrenic 
appearance. 

Continued on Page 49, Column 3 



SO THAT'S WHAT 
YOU'VE BEEN PLAYING 



Titles Listed: 129 
Rank: Title 


Total Responses: 471 

Rank Times 
Last On Fret], 
Pub Time List Ratio 


1. 

2. 


Advanced SL 
Up Front 


AH 
AH 


i 
4 


27 
14 


3.1 

2.8 


3. 

4. 


Third Reich 
Siege of Jerusalem 
Gettysburg "88 
Diplomacy 


AH 
AH 
AH 
AH 


6 
8 


7 

3 


2.1 
2.0 


5. 
6. 

7. 
6. 


5 
3 


1 

28 


1.7 

1.6 


Republic of Rome 
Squad Leader 


AH 
AH 


1 
56 


1.5 
1.5 


9. 

to. 

11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 


B-I7 

Flight Leader 


AH 
AH 


16 


1 
3 


1.4 
1.4 


Flat Top 

Code of Bushido 


AH 
AH 


— 


1 
1 


1.3 
1.2 


Russian Campaign 
WS&IM 


AH 
AH 


— 


1 

1 


1.2 
1.2 


15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 


Afrika Korps 
Ambush 


AH 
VQ 


— 


1 

1 


1.1 

1.1 


Empires in Arms 

Kremlin 


AH 
AH 


15 
17 


2 
2 


1,0 
1.0 


19. 
20. 


MBT 
Russian Front 


AH 
AH 


2 

11 


4 
2 


1,0 
1.0 



The dearth of new wargames appears to have caused 
more readers to pull some of the classics down off the 
shelf- Or perhaps they are just warming up for the com- 
petition at AvalonCon. Whatever the reason, it is a 
pleasant surprise to sec the likes of FLAT TOP, AFRIKA 
KORFS, WS&IM and RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN return to 
the listing of "player preferences 1 ' — doubly so for the 
latter since it just happens to be featured in this issue. 
As expected, the newest ASL module also appears on 
the list, once again highlighting the devotion of the fans 
of this game and their insatiable appetite for new 
challenges . As usual t a number of excellent games 
barely missed being included, including several that 
appeared on the list last issue. 



48 



ONWARD TO VOLOGDA 

An Axis 1941 Winter Offensive 



Winter of 1941. Even for those with but a 
cursory familiarity with the Eastern Front dur- 
ing the Second World War, the phrase conjures 
up harrowing images of two great armies, locked 
in mortal combat, fighting, freezing and dying 
on the frozen steppes and in the trackless forests. 
For both the Germans and the Soviets, the winter 
of 1941-42 marked a significant Rubicon. El- 
prepared for the fierce weather, the Axis (except 
for the Finnish) armies were stopped "cold" in 
their tracks and hurled back in confusion up to 
1560 miles. But for the moxie of the individual 
German soldier, the Wehrmacht was almost ex- 
tinguished as an effective fighting force. For the 
Soviets, this first winter showed the world a 
resurgent Red Army and that the previously in- 
vincible Wehrmacht couid be stopped. Although 
the Soviets would successfully survive many 
more perilous crises in the future before their 
ultimate triumph, none would compare strategi- 
cally and psychologically with this first great 
victory. 

In RUSSIAN FRONT, as is the case with most 
other simulations of "Barbarossa", this first 
winter for the Axis player is usually character- 
ized by a cautious tidying up of the front. Exposed 
salients are flattened to conform with the rest of 
the line. Reserve assets are husbanded carefully, 
in anticipation of the coming fury. However in 
RUSSIAN FRONT, unlike THIRD REICH, the 
Axis player can still attack, which comes in handy 
if the Soviet player is in extremis and cannot con- 
duct his winter counterattack. Of course, any 
ground units other than the Finns and mountain 
troops attack and defend with a — 1 strength 
modifier (15.6). But that's merely an obstacle to 
be overcome in your calculations. 

When RUSSIAN FRONT is a contest between 
two skilled opponents, an Axis Decisive Victory 
in November 1941 is not a common occurrence. 
There is simply too much territory to be covered 
and too many objective hexes to be controlled by 
the end. But any Axis player worth his sail will 
still try for the quick November kill, hopefully 
with full realization that he will probably not be 
successful and will be facing the winter counter- 
offensive. Assuming that the Soviet player has 
been adroit enough on defense that the Axis will 
not obtain a Decisive Victory, and further assum- 
ing that the enemy has the strength for a counter- 
attack, are there any options open to the Axis 
player? Given an initial degree of success for. Axis 
arms during the summer, I believe so. This article 
details one possible winter offensive on the part 
of the Germans and their allies. 

STAFF WORK 

Preparation for your winter offensive begins 
with the first turn of the game. The objective of 
the summer operation is to eliminate as many of 
the Soviet units and control as much of their real 
estate as possible. Other articles have already seen 
print detailing this matter, so I need not belabor 
it further. In September, as the Soviet defenses 
around Moscow begin to gel, the Axis player 



By John Hyler 

needs to begin to make his specific preparations. 

The objective of the coming winter offensive 
is the city of Vologda. For such to have the best 
chance of success, the Axis player needs to con- 
trol territory in certain regions of the board by 
the end of November first. Specifically: In the 
north, the Finns should push as close to Lenin- 
grad and the Svir River as possible. South of 
Leningrad, the front line needs to be established 
on the Volkhov River, and even east of the river 
in the area south of the lake at Novgorod down 
through the mountains to Rzhev. Hexes QQ18 
and QQ19 must be held at all hazard, but con- 
trol of QQ20 is open to question. Control of that 
hex provides an excellent jumping-off point for 
your attack. However, the threat of an isolated 
Leningrad may prompt the enemy to move more 
assets into this area to break the ring about the 
city, which is precisely what the Axis player does 
not want. On balance, it may be better to leave 
QQ20 in Soviet control; once the above listed are 
under your thumb, restrain further Axis attacks 
and simply defend what you have in the region. 
Hopefully, this will lull the Soviet player into 
thinking that the front lines have stabilized around 
Leningrad and so will send his November rein- 
forcements elsewhere. For the purposes of further 
discussion here, assume that QQ20 is Russian- 
held. 

To further prod the Soviet player into keep- 
ing his November reinforcements away from, the 
Leningrad area, the Wehrmacht needs to grind 
forward far enough so that you control at least 
one row of the woods hexes shielding the western 
approaches to Moscow. Control of Kalinin and 
Tula, if feasible, would be dandy. This area 
around Moscow is what I term its "security 
zone". In addition to being a good defensive 
position, the close proximity of the Axis hordes 
to Moscow may well compel the Soviet player 
to keep reinforcements pouring into the Moscow 
region, rather than moving them elsewhere by 
rail. 

The following units of the Axis force are then 
extricated from combat, moved to railheads, and 
prepared for deployment (in the following order 
of priority): one 8-6-6 armor from Army Group 
Center, the 49th Mountain and 4th Infantry from 
Army Group South. Exactly when these units are 
pulled back will depend upon both their current 
activities and the number of hits presendy sus- 
tained. But by the end of November, they should 
be in position on converted railroad hexes at full 
strength. During this time too, the two armor 
units of Army Group North should be restored 
(if not already) to full strength and positioned at 
QQ19. If possible, have the infantry of AG North 
at full strength, although this may be impossible 
since a lion's share of future Replacement Points 
will need to be allocated to AG Center's infan- 
try. If all goes as planned, they will be bearing 
the brunt of the Soviet winter counteroffensive. 

If they can be spared, you want to position 
excess units of AG North infantry in PP18. The 
Luftwaffe is placed, by the end of November, 



so that the four units present in December will 
cover both the Leningrad and Moscow fronts. 
The Finnish air stations itself in Vyborg. 

In December, the three aforementioned Ger- 
man formations are transported by rail to PP18. 
Soviet partisan activiry may prevent some (or 
even all) of the units from being moved. But the 
Soviets at the start of December have only two 
Partisan factors available for use. If all are used, 
these— plus the + 1 DRM for snow— still allow 
the Germans a 67% chance of moving at least 
one unit. If not all can be moved in December, 
those that can are moved in the same order of 
priority as listed above. In subsequent turns, those 
left behind are moved up north. 

EXECUTION 

I have established the timing of my attack for 
December, because there can only be snow in the 
Arctic zone in December through February. This 
offensive can only be conducted in the winter. 
This is due to the fact that much of the fighting 
will occur in the marsh hexes around and east 
of Tikhvin. In all types of weather conditions, 
except Snow, ground units expend three move- 
ment factors per hex here. But in the snow, this 
is reduced to two movement points, enabling your 
armor to make Blitz attacks without taking hits 
for the extra movement. 

When playing RUSSIAN FRONT as the Axis, 

1 dread the arrival of the four Soviet 7-5-4 Shock 
units in November. Their arrival marks the be- 
ginning of the build-up of powerful Soviet units 
which will bury the Axis if victory is not achieved 
in a reasonable time. Since their arrival and 
deployment can totally de-rail any plans for attack 
in the area, by waiting until December to launch 
the Vologda offensive, the Axis player can 
observe where they are positioned. Assuming that 
all four are fighting around Moscow, it would 
take at least two turns for your opponent to 
extricate and shift them elsewhere. 

In my article "East Rubble" (Vol. 26, No. 

2 of The GENERAL), I criticized Mr. Miller for 
his placement of Soviet armor in marsh hexes. 
Well, I fully realize that by selecting the area 
between Leningrad and Vologda for an attack 
with panzers I am leaving myself open to the 
same abuse. True, the strength modifiers for 
marsh plus the Axis First Winter penalty reduce 
an 8-6-6 to a "4" on offense and an execrable 
"2" on defense; but with proper air support and 
help from the infantry, positive results can still 
be achieved. The eight combat factors that an 
8-6-6 armor with air support wield will normally 
result in a Soviet unit eliminated, following 
pursuit. 

The mechanics of the German attack are the 
same as always: blitz, pursuit and exploitation. 
Starting from QQ19, AG North's armor blitzs 
QQ20. Assuming eventual Soviet unit elimina- 
tion, this armor is then poised to head east. The 
8-6-6 of AG Center will not be able to blitz this 
turn (unless willing to take hits for the extra 
movement). At this juncture in time, taking hits 



49 



for extra movement is simply not a good idea for 
the Axis player will need all his replacement 
points to counteract the ravages of the main Soviet 
attack. Nevertheless, AG Center's 8-6-6, start- 
ing in PP18, attacks PP20. Both armor attacks 
are supported fully by the Luftwaffe. The remain- 
ing two Luftwaffe units interdict PP2 1 and O02 1 . 
Soak-off attacks by German and Finnish infan- 
try in hexes adjacent to the armored spearheads, 
to both prevent response as well as to prevent 
Soviet retreats, should be undertaken. It goes 
without saying that infantry a] so accompanies the 
armor. And place a Reserve counter on the in- 
fantry waiting in PP18. 

Once a hole is torn in the Soviet line, the 
panzers head east. If Tikhvin is unoccupied, take 
it and position the armor to prevent subsequent 
recapture. The infantry units under the Reserve 
counter move as far as they can. And if Tikhvin 
is unoccupied and the Finns control the Svir River 
line at the onset of the attack, they should try to 
seize and control RR25, shifting the rest of their 
forces east on the Svir for support. If success- 
ful, this, with the German armor moving east, 
can result in the encirclement of most of the 
Soviet units in the far north, placing their defense 
in severe jeopardy. 

If Tikhvin is occupied, it must be captured in 
January. Otherwise, your timetable for this attack 
will be in ruins. As an aside, to help the Decem- 
ber exploitation, either the 49th Mountain or the 
4th Infantry can be dispatched to OO20. With the 
air interdiction in 0021, the only hex that the 
Soviets can retreat to is NN20 — opening a three- 
hex gap in the Soviet line and assuring unimpeded 
exploitation through and better positioning of the 
exploiting infantry to protect the flanks. 

The Soviet response in December will un- 
doubtably see reinforcements sent to the region. 
How many and their quality will determine if 
your attack can continue. Only four units can be 
transported by rail close enough to establish a new 
defensive line, but rebuilt units may be placed 
in Vologda itself. 

Assuming that the Axis winter offensive can 
continue, January 1942 brings more headaches 
for the Wehrmacht. Another air wing is with- 
drawn, leaving you only three to carry on with 
until early summer. But even with only three, 
plus the Finnish air force, enough local air 
superiority can be maintained— barely— to resume 
the assault. 

The goal of the January attacks is the Sheksna 
River line for the armor, hexes NN26 and 0027. 
Once attained, these provide an excellent 
jumping -off point to the terra firma approach to 
Vologda. By February, your forces should be ad- 
jacent to Uiat city with the 4th Infantry and 49th 
Mountain poised to advance into it. In March, 
your assault on the city opens; with luck, this 
should take but one turn to secure the goal, with 
the armor attacking to clear space around the city. 

BENEFITS & DANGERS 

The advantages to having control of Vologda 
are apparent with even a cursory glance at the 
board. The Soviet northern flank is completely 
unhinged, providing you with an excellent op- 
portunity for a drive south to isolate Moscow 
from the east. Leningrad is now so hopelessly 
out-of- supply that its capture is only a matter of 
time, helping the Axis rail capability and free- 



ing the Finns to roam at will on Mapboard A. 
In addition, any attempts to recapture Leningrad 
by the Soviets will demand they fight the Axis 
through excellent defensive terrain. Since only 
one Soviet unit per game turn can be placed in 
the red, partial hexes in the far north, and the 
Soviets cannot use offboard rail movement to 
reinforce Plesetsk, the eventual fall of that town 
and loss of Lend-Lease replacement points to the 
Soviets can be assured. Finally, as an added 
bonus, the Axis player receives the 19th and 36th 
Mountain Corps. These two units can prove their 
worth in the Caucasus Mountains should a drive 
on the oilfields at Maikop be contemplated. 

Even if the Soviet player sends enough rein- 
forcements to halt the attack, the drain of strength 
from other areas of the front will slow the impetus 
of that Soviet counteroffensive. This in itself 
should help the Axis maintain positions as far east 
as possible. 

Attempting the drive to Vologda requires 
great intestinal fortitude on the part of the Axis 
player. Not only will he be fighting with limited 
assets, but with the Luftwaffe occupied in the 
north the front lines elsewhere will indeed suffer. 
The Russians will have numerical superiority in 
air units, which will cause problems for you when 
any battle unsupported by air units is fought. The 
infantry attack on OO20 comes immediately to 
mind as one at risk from the Red Air Force in- 
volvement. The Axis player may well see great 
gains made in the north, but a crumbling of his 
center and south— not a pretty sight. 

To help the attack in the north, AG Center 
(aided possibly by armor from AG South) needs 
to "stand fast" as best they can. It must keep 
the pressure on in the Moscow area to force the 
enemy to keep as many units around Moscow as 
possible and away from the north. In the south 
too, maintain contact with the Soviet front line 
to prevent easy transfer of units from what will 
probably be the "quiet" sector of the RUSSIAN 
FRONT. 



CONCLUSION 

This Axis attack is risky, and should be under- 
taken only if the following conditions can be met 
by November: 1) control of at least the territory 
mentioned earlier; 2) sufficient bloodying of the 
Red Army and Air Force so that, even though 
it may be able to mount the winter counteroffen- 
sive, this will be a limited affair; 3) the Axis 
summer offensive is relatively free of casualties 
and unit loss; and 4) the Axis can achieve total 
tactieai surprise with their winter drive for 
Vologda. 

When I refer to a "sufficient bloodying" 
above, I am speaking of inflicting enough casual- 
ties upon the enemy that they are capable of only 
a single-line defense with no "double lines" (ex- 
cept perhaps where they plan to launch their 
winter attack upon you) and few units available 
as reserves. The Axis summer offensive needs 
to be conducted as efficiently as possible so that 
you will not be consistently outstripping your 
replacement point capabilities. Most importantly, 
if the Soviet player divines what is coming, he 
can easily send enough reinforcements to stymie 
the attack before it even starts. Axis failure in 
even one of these four is enough to convince me 
that the plan is unfeasible. 



With so many conditions needing to be met, 
this drive to Vologda will not normally be an 
option for the experienced Axis player. However, 
the potential benefits are so noteworthy and well 
worth the risk should conditions be right that it 
should be in the back of one's mind at all times. 
It is a great coup to be able to spring this on an 
unsuspecting Soviet opponent, smug in his suc- 
cessful summer defense and anticipating dishing 
out retribution in the winter. Watch his con- 
fidence drop as his position erodes to a calami- 
tous end. If successful, Axis options for the 
summer 1942 offensive increase gready. And the 
Axis player can, more importantly, with reason 
expect a happy 1942 campaign, with a good 
chance of securing a well-earned Decisive 
Victory. VV 

iiinniiHiiiiiHiHiiimiiiiiHiiiiKiHiJiHiiiuii 



Coming Attractions 



IIJIHOIUIiHIIHIIIIBIIimilll! 
Cont 'd from Page 33 



cate the feats of a Rome to conquer the known 
world and thus win militarily. Naturally, this is 
the version I find most intriguing. 

Eight new types of Civilization cards have 
been added (Roadbuilding, Mining, Mathematics, 
Military, Deism, Enlightenment, Monotheism, 
and Theology). In addition, many of the original 
cards now have enhanced attributes. Physically, 
the cards have been modified for easier play with 
rounded edges and summaries on the reverse side. 
I predict even staunch supporters of the original 
game will be salivating over the new cards. 
Another 80-card deck of Trade and Calamity 
cards have been added to revitalize that aspect 
of the game. The previous variant card deck has 
been incorporated and updated with the total set 
values which it lacked previously. Pillage rules 
and an eight-player version round out the 
package. 

Advanced CIVILIZATION retains the essen- 
tial elements of CIVILIZATION, and can be 
learned quickly even by those who have never 
played the original. The new cards ensure a 
greater diversity of cultures, while the new 
calamities make the game even more challeng- 
ing. Best of all, Advanced CIV can be played to 
a satisfying completion in one sitting, simply by 
setting a time limit and determining the winner 
at that point based on the new victory criteria. 



ifir 



Sports Special . , . Cont'd from Page 47 

The rules suggest using the Designated Hitter 
for all teams instead of playing "real" (pre- 1973) 
baseball, with the critical strategic nuance of plac- 
ing the pitcher in the batter's box. Only Detroit 
in '84 and Oakland in '75 actually used the DH, 
and it seems better to the players of these two 
teams to adjust and lose one element of their suc- 
cess rather than see eight teams sacrifice an im- 
portant aspect of their game strength. 

Perhaps the best role for SP BASEBALL 
GREAT TEAMS is as an introduction to the 
system for newcomers. SP BASEBALL fans will 
already have many of these teams as part of their 
annual card sets. But a novice will be attracted 
by the chance to taste the cream without strain- 
ing the grounds. Playing the '62 Giants against 
the '62 Dodgers is exciting; playing Oakland 
against Toronto in 1977 is not. >i 



so 



STALINGRAD DEFENDED 

The Russian Defense in TPS 

By Don Greenwood 



"TURNING POINT: STALINGRAD is the 
best wargame since ASL, except for one thing. 
In 25 games, I've yet to see a Russian tie, let 
alone a win." 

Ouch! Those words from Major Bruce Degi, 
an instructor at the USAF Academy, really struck 
a nerve. Like most designers, I'm partial to my 
own work, but TURNING POINT: STALINGRAD 
holds a special place in my heart. Unlike most 
projects, which are relegated to the shelf after 
a year of concentrated development chores, I find 
myself constantly on the lookout for an opportu- 
nity to play TURNING POINT again. It is, in my 
opinion, the epitome of what a wargame should 
be with an excitement level unmatched by any. 
I have not been as enamored with any wargame 
since UP FRONT. 

Thus, Bruce' s comments on play balance cut 
me to the quick, and mystified me at the same 
time. I have heard similar comments, but always 
dismissed them as the rarnblings of the inex- 
perienced. After all, I had no trouble winning 
with either side (or losing for that matter). In- 
deed, the excitement level derives from the per- 
ceived lead see-sawing back and forth and is the 
main reason I'm so taken with the game. Granted, 
the Russian has to play a different kind of game 
than most players are used to, but I see no reason 
why a competent Russian cannot expect to win 
half of the time. That said, I accepted Degi's 
challenge to a game at the upcoming TACTICON 
in Denver with a certain amount of trepidation. 
What type of German juggernaut would I he 
facing who had yet to be denied victory in 25 
games? Weil, there was nothing for it but to get 
out the board and study for my coming match in 
hopes that I could at least give the good Major 
a tussle that would worry him. One of us was 
surely going to eat crow, and I fervently hoped 
it wouldn't be me. So I started hedging my bets 
immediately. 

I opened with a request to use chits instead 
of dice. Luck can occasionally bring down even 
the best player, and using chits lowers the luck 
factor and usually results in a nail-biter. Bruce 
wanted to play the historical setup. I preferred 
the basic game, although it appears to be the com- 
mon perception (and a mistaken one I believe) 
that the Russian's chances are better using the 
historical setup. While it is true that the historical 
setup hinders both sides, I've always thought it 
hurt the Germans less and have been surprised 
by the prevailing feeling to the contrary. Ob- 
viously, German players are basing their belief 
on the fact that it prevents them from concen- 
trating their 29th, 94th and 71st Divisions into 
huge "killer" stacks from the outset. Although 
this is an annoyance to the German, it is not 
something that can't be overcome. A good player 
can arrange to recombine these forces in the 
course of the opening day's batde without major 
sacrifices. 

The Russian historical setup, on the other 
hand, has two glaring weaknesses which he can 
overcome only with great difficulty or consider- 



able luck in the face of competent opposition. The 
most dangerous flaw is the defense of Kuibyshev 
Sawmill (#31) with only the three weak 1-2-4 
NKVD battalions. The Sawmill is easily the most 
crucial area on the board at game start and scene 
of the bitterest fighting— poised as it is between 
the might of the 94th Division and the Volga. 
When it falls, it not only brings the Germans two 
of the five additional Victory Points he needs to 
win, but cuts off Kuporosnoye (#30) from rein- 
forcement, virtually guaranteeing a third Victory 
Point. The initial German bombardment has a 
33% chance of clearing this cornerstone of the 
Russian defense of fresh units, with the Stuka 
standing ready with a 76% chance of disrupting 
any lone survivor. Once all Fresh defenders are 
gone, Kuibyshev has all but fallen, because then 
even the 29th Division can reach it on the first 
day. Any defense of the Sawmill once it is 
stripped of fresh defenders will be an extremely 
costly affair. 

Less critical, but still worthy of note, is the 
situation at the other end of the board in Rynok 
where a lone 2-3-4 anchors the northern flank at 
the water's edge. The Stuka has a 55% chance 
of vacating Rynok altogether in the opening bom- 
bardment; and even without it, the German 6-6-6 
in Latashanka (H) can attack at 7:6 with a 44% 
chance of taking the area and another Victory 
Point with little threat from Russian counter- 
attack. 

Which leads us to the biggest flaw in the 
Russian historical setup: almost everything else. 
Good Russian play at the outset is a study in how 
to retreat from the weak + 1 TEM areas to better 
defenses closer to the river. The historical setup 
not only makes it difficult to retreat, it lacks the 
concentration of force vital for a Russian counter- 
attack to prevent weak German advances in the 
north. In determining my optimum Russian setup 
I moved 47 of the 78 Russian units (60%) to 
different allowed positions. In contrast, when 
preparing my optimum German setup, I needed 
to change only 16 of 75 positions (21 %). Con- 
sidering that the Russians are the less mobile of 
the two forces, there is little doubt in my mind 
which side the historical setup hinders more. The 
historical setup was designed for use with the 
Simulation Game with that version's harder-to- 
obtain Victory Conditions and German unit with- 
drawals in mind. If you play the historical setup 
with the Basic Game Victory Conditions, the 
Russians should indeed be hard pressed. The re- 
mainder of this article will therefore pertain to 
the Basic Game setup. 

One last caveat before proceeding. In Volume 
26, Number 2 of The GENERAL I advocated the 
use of two additional rules— only one of which 
has any appreciable effect on play balance. First, 
the TEM for Ranged Attacks should be tripled 
rather than doubled. Using the original rule, I 
believe the Germans do enjoy an edge in play 
balance which this amendment adequately ad- 
dresses. The other rule (which I believe hurts the 
Russians as much as, if not more than, the Ger- 



man) is 14.8: "Rubble never increases the DV 
of armor." For example, if an armor "3" and 
an infantry "2" are in a +3 TEM area with 
rubble "2", the infantry would be the prime 
defender with a total DV of 7. Now, let's walk 
northward along the Russian perimeter to evalu- 
ate my defense. 

KUPOROSNOYE (30): 4-4-4, *-3-5, 1-2-4 

Kuporosnoye is valuable because its position 
between the mighty 29th Division and the Volga 
means both a Victory Point and two quick Inter- 
diction Points for the Germans. Unfortunately, 
it usually cannot be held and the Russian would 
do well to remember the old maxim, "He who 
defends everything, defends nothing." Reinforc- 
ing it is both difficult and foolish. However, it 
should not be given away either. The "4" in- 
fantry unit provides a hard outer shell that stands 
a 44% chance of escaping the initial bombard- 
ment unscathed. If this occurs, even a 16:7 attack 
from the 29th Division stands a 33% chance of 
failing to clear the Area and a 55% chance of fail- 
in!; to achieve an Overrun— thus denying these 
vital troops to the German for at least two days. 
Make no mistake, Kuporosnoye will fall and these 
troops will die — but if they've tied down the 29th 
Division for two or three days they've done their 
job. 

A common mistake of new Russian players 
is to opt for extra retreats which they could avoid 
by eliminating a unit altogether. I am of the 
opinion, especially at the outset, that a Fresh unit 
with its quasi- ZOC is worth more than several 
disrupted ones without a ZOC. This is especially 
true of retreating units which must remain dis- 
rupted for four days and often will never live to 
see Fresh status again if they're in the path of 
oncoming panzers. To illustrate my retreat 
policy, let's look at how I'd handle various 
Casualty Point losses in Kuporosnoye to the open- 
ing bombardment. 

1-2 CP: 4-4-4— Retreat to 31 

3 CP: 4-4-4— Eliminated 

4 CP: 4-4-4, *-3-5— Retreat to 31 

5 CP: *-3-5— Eliminated; 4-4-4— Retreat 

to 31 

6 CP: *-3-5, 4-4-4— Eliminated 

The rules require the 4-4-4 to take the first 
Casualty Point so it is always among the losses. 
However, I will kill it rather than disrupt a second 
unit. I also opt to retreat out of #30 even if I only 
have one CP to satisfy because the strength of 
the 29th Division is such that no single disrupted 
unit will make a difference, and will doubtless 
just be fodder for a secondary Overrun when the 
29th enters Kuporosnoye. In #31, they can be a 
significant part of the defense of the Sawmill and 
might even draw a Ranged Attack by the 29th 
(that could backfire by creating rubble). Choos- 
ing to eliminate the AA unit before the weaker 
1-2-4 infantry unit reveals a weakness in this 
defense in that the *-3-5 unit can't be left alone 
and still defend at full strength. Consequendy, 



51 



an acceptable variation— perhaps even a better 
version— of this defense would add a second in- 
fantry unit from Area 3 1 . 

MININA (29): 2-2-4 

Minina deserves no more than the required 
token defense. Its only purpose is to serve as a 
buffer between the mighty 29th Division and the 
Sawmill (#31). However, it should not be 
abandoned completely because its ZOC can prove 
annoying and the German should be made to ex- 
pend the effort to take it. Despite its harmless 
appearance, Minina can be the source of major 
difficulties for an unwary German. Should the 
29th move into Kuporosnoye and the 94th be 
committed elsewhere, a Russian attack through 
Minina to take Hill 120 can leave the mighty 29th 
isolated and unable to move in the morning if not 
relieved before dawn. 

KUIBYSHEV SAWMILL (31): 4-4-6, *-3-5, 
2-2-6, 1-2-4x4 

The 4-4-6 armor is too good a unit to form 
ihe outer shell of a defense, but it can't be helped. 
The opening bombardment from the 94th Divi- 
sional Artillery has a 56% chance of causing two 
CP and these should be used to retreat the 4^4-6 
into the Southern Railway Station (#33) where 
it will block any Overrun through the Leather- 
works (#27). Any further retreats to subsequent 
attacks should be made to Minina Gully (#32) 
where they'll be out of harm's way and have a 
chance of returning to action on the 17th. There 
is a 16% chance that the opening bombardment 
will rabble the Sawmill. Whether it does or not, 
the Russian should look for an opportunity to en- 
trench with his NKVD Regiment as soon as the 
danger of Stuka attack or assault by the 94th 
Division has passed. Consequently, the Russian 
may want to consider taking losses with the 2-2-6 
armor rather than his third infantry unit. Lest 
(here be any doubt, the Sawmill should be held 
to the last man and reinforced as required. 

LEATHERWORKS (27): 2-3^ 

I like to refer to this as the "killing ground". 
The key to Russian play is to defend in the 
+3/ +4 TBM areas while forcing the Germans 
to defend in the + 1/+2 areas. The Leatherworks 
is a prime example of where this can be accom- 
plished. Never hold it with more than one unit. 
Force the Germans to attack it in force, but be 
sure they lack the necessary MF to move beyond 
it into the Southern Railway Station (#33) with 
an Overrun. This means that whenever the Ger- 
mans take the Leatherworks, you immediately 
counterattack with one unit— and only one until 
I believe this is where most Russian players err 
in playing TPS. In their passion to inflict casual- 
ties, they attack with too many units at once. The 
Russians simply can't afford it. There is no point 
in continuing these counterattacks as long as you 
have a unit in #27. The point of any Russian 
counterattack is primarily to fill holes and delay. 
German casualties are just a bonus. However, the 
Russian must be careful to occupy the Southern 
Railway Station at all times. 

The lone defender here also serves to channel 
the German's opening bombardment into the 
Sawmill, where it will attack with only a +2 (and 
a 16% chance of rubble) instead of a +5 and a 
2% chance of rubble. 




South 



52 

TSARITSA GORGE (26): 2-3-4 

The Gorge has little importance other than 
serving as a buffer between the 24th Division and 
the Russian armor in the Tsaritsa Woods (#34), 
As such, it is often bypassed, and the most 
frequent question pondered by the Russian is 
when to withdraw from it. By limiting the initial 
placement to one unit, the hindrance value of a 
Fresh unit's ZOC on German armor movement 
is such that it can probably be left as a hedgehog 
even when threatened with isolation. 

TSARITSA WOODS (34): 1-3-4x2, 1-2-4x2, 
3-2-5x3, 2-2-5x2 

All available Russian armor is concentrated 
here as a bombardment-proof reserve from which 
to launch one-unit counterattacks into #27, #26, 
#25 and #35 whenever the Germans take those 
areas. The infantry units shield the armor from 
Stuka attack, and are a]so ready to move into Area 
33 where they can defend the Southern Railway 
Station from an Overrun by the 29th*s 6-6-8 
Recon with a 33% chance of entrenching at the 
end of the move. Note that the l-34s defend with 
a "2" while disrupted and thus are the best units 
for the job. 

DUBOVAYA WOODS (25): 2-3-4 

The lone defender here and in Tsaritsa Gorge 
(#26) leaves the powerful 24th Divisional 
Artillery without a worthwhile target if it is to 
take part in the opening bombardment. As Over- 
runs do not benefit artillery, the Germans stand 
little to gain by smashing an empty bag and must 
accept the paltry target or withhold fire and burn 
another impulse against the Hospital (#24). If 
destroyed in the opening bombardment, a sacrifi- 
cial unit must take its place. Dubovaya Gully 
(#25) or West Stalingrad (#61) must be occupied 
by retreat or first impulse movement in any case, 

THE HOSPITAL (24): 3-3-5x2, 2-3-4x4, 
*-2-5x2, *-I-5 

Area 24, covering crucial ground in the 
middle of the board, can expect to take a lot of 
grief from the German 71st and 24th Divisions- 
including perhaps a double dose of artillery. Nine 
units allow it to bend but not break while with- 
standing all that German might. The six mobile 
units also allow it to serve as a fire brigade should 
many holes need to be fixed at once, although 
this should be avoided until the 71st Division has 
committed itself elsewhere. The retreat rules pro- 
hibit retreats into multiple areas, but the Russian 
should nonetheless be watchful for opportunities 
to use a retreat as a free impulse to occupy vital 
areas and should seldom retreat into the same area 
in subsequent attacks. Area 35 is a particularly 
good choice for a retreat from the opening bom- 
bardment because it fulfills the needed blocking 
function with a unit that is already disrupted for 
four days and unlikely to see fresh status again. 
In fact, the Russian should be alert for opportu- 
nities to use a voluntary retreat carrying only a 
one day disruption penalty to occupy any of the 
surrounding areas with a solitary unit. 

HILL 153.7 (8): 1-2-4 

The minimum defense is all that is required 
for this nutcracker position with lousy terrain 
sandwiched between two German divisions. The 



less there, the better! An Overrun is of little con- 
sequence since the furthest daytime advance is 
to Hill 126.3, which the Russian can't hold any- 
way. The infantry is chosen as the sacrificial lamb 
to save the more mobile *-l-5 whose speed can 
be useful in filling gaps. No withdrawal plans are 
in the offing. The ZOC is worth more than the 
impulse needed to withdraw it. Let it die, slow- 
ing the Germans down for the greater glory of 
the Motherland. 

TARTAR WALL (22): 4-4-6x2, 3-2-6, 2-2-6, 
*-3-5x2, M-5, 1-2-4x2 

The Tartar Wall is hardly the place for a hold- 
to-the-last-man defense, and that is not the intent 
here. Rather, the other green-colored areas are 
stripped to amass seven mobile units in one area. 
This is the Russian's planned first move. His 
second impulse (Russians don't get a first impulse 
on Sept. 1 3) should scatter atl but one of these 
units behind the Russian lines and plug any holes 
that have developed. With their doubled MF, 
these units can reach any Russian area and by dis- 
persing will offer limited kills to the Stukas. The 
infantry is present to absorb any extra casualties. 
If unused, the extra infantry should move into 
#20 as a sacrificial rearguard when the others 
move out. Retreats of single units should be to 
area #23 if unoccupied. 

Another tactic to keep in mind when dispers- 
ing these units adjacent to German areas is the 
Ranged Attack. Usually, only the German can 
mass sufficient force to cause casualties with a 
Ranged Attack, but casualties are not your in- 
tent. Provided you see the unit as a sacrificial 
lamb not long for the world anyway, you have 
nothing to lose by tacking on an extra two day's 
disruption to make a Ranged Attack in the slim 
hope (5% in a +2 TEM area) of creating rubble 
which will slow the German movement through 
his rear areas. 

VISHNEVAYA GULLY (21): 2-34 

This solitary unit just begs an Overrun . , . 
but so what? The 295th can mount a 15-factor 
attack. There is no sense opposing it in this 
terrain. The idea is to leave as few rearguards 
as necessary and group the rest into large forces 
which can be quickly dispersed in a single im- 
pulse. The German lacks sufficient armor here 
to penetrate far in the daylight. The key is to have 
the second line of defense in place before night- 
fall. 

GORODISCHE (10): 1-2-4 

Again, the solitary unit offers minimal re- 
sistance, but the ZOC afforded by the units on 
the flanks in #19 and #40 assure that no single 
penetration will go far. 

HILL 109.4 (19): 3-4-4, 2-4-4, 2-3-4 

There are no good red -colored setup choices, 
but fortunately the Germans are weak in the north 
so it matters little. Six units must set up in red 
areas; so after the mandatory garrisons have been 
placed, that leaves two extra units. They appear 
here because it is the southernmost red area and 
allows these slow infantry units the most move- 
ment options. It also provides a strong hedgehog 
to maintain a ZOC over #20 and #18 should the 
Germans breakthrough in the north. 



HILL 108.3 (12): 2-4-4 

The lone unit has a 67% chance of surviving 
a bombardment by the 389th Artillery— which is 
why it is here instead of a lesser unit. An Over- 
run here accomplishes little as the Germans lack 
the armor with which to exploit it. 

HILL 108.2 (13): *-2-5 

Perhaps the least valuable piece of real estate 
on the board, Hill 108.2 is defended only because 
the rules require it. A mobile unit of little value 
is chosen simply because infantry lacks sufficient 
movement to extricate itself from this corner. 

ORLOVKA (14): 5-44 

The 2nd Motorized Brigade is actually one 
of the Russian's best offensive units and its loss 
is not a frivolous matter. It garrisons the far-flung 
corner, both to keep it out of harm's way and 
because it has the mobility to withdraw in a single 
impulse. The Little Mushroom (#48) is an 
excellent spot to withdraw it to at the first op- 
portunity if you can resist the urge to make a night 
attack with it against disrupted Germans. 

STATE FARM (17): 34-4 

A lone unit on the flank would be worrisome 
if the Germans had any real strength in the north. 
As it is, the State Farm is insulated from contact 
by ZOC and probably in more danger from the 
west. The DV of "5" (plus Russian artillery) 
should be sufficient to discourage any incursions 
from the north. As it is, the German stands more 
to lose on this flank than he can gain until he 
brings up significant reinforcements. 

RADIO STATION (25): 2-34x2 

Again, the defense should be adequate, given 
the German weakness on this flank, as any attack 
is subject to major counterattack from the Little 
Mushroom (#48), 

LITTLE MUSHROOM (48): 344, 1-24x6 

This is my sole exception to the Russian 
piecemeal attack philosophy. Although this force 
is worth more as a threat than an actual strike 
force, it is capable of mounting a 10-factor, 
seven-unit counterattack. And if the German does 
not reinforce Vinnovka (G), that "threat" may 
actually materialize and isoiate Latashanka's two 
Victory Points. Note that this force cannot move 
and attack in total until reinforced because it lacks 
an eighth unit to leave behind to defend the area. 
This problem is neady solved by the arrival of 
the 2nd Brigade from Orlovka, which increases 
the attack force to 12 factors and leaves a 344 
still defending the Little Mushroom. A 12:8 
attack on Vinnovka has a 76% chance of isolat- 
ing Latashanka (H). By using whole regiments 
of the weak 1-24 infantry, the different Parent 
Division penalty is negated and a large attack 
force can be assembled (while using the 149th 
Division's 344s on defense where they provide 
a tougher outer shell). The German ignores this 
threat at his peril. However, this means post- 
poning any such attack until the second night and 
competent German play will have long since rein- 
forced Vinnovka with FLAK units. This tempts 
the Russian to strike before Vinnovka is rein- 
forced. My advice is don 'r. If the attack fails, 
you will have no force with which to threaten 



53 




Skuchava** 
J**!*Mechetfci / : 



German penetrations and no reserve to seal the 
gaps they create. 

BIG MUSHROOM (73): 3-4-4, 2-6-6 

The 3-4-4 provides the "hard shell" of the 
defense; the lesser unit is there to absorb losses. 
When things get tight, as they inevitably do, the 
2-2-6 can be stripped away as a mobile gap-filler 
as long as #71 and #48 are occupied to contain 
any Overrun, 

RYNOK (74): 3-4-4, 2-3-4 

The extra unit (above the historical placement) 
means that the chances of an adventuresome Ger- 
man 6-6-6's attack taking Rynok fall from 33 % 
to 5 % . As long as the Russian holds his hammer 
in the Little Mushroom, things should stay quiet 
in the north. 

That ends our walk around the perimeter. The 
reserve positions remain unchanged from the 
historical setup but a few points bear discussion 
nonetheless: 

BRICKWORKS, DZERHERZINSKY TRACTOR 
FACTORY, SPARTAKOVA (69-71): *-6-5x3 

The Russian AA units are their strongest 
defensive forces at the outset, and their deploy- 
ment into what soon will be the front line is 
critical. Care should be taken to move the 
northernmost first because the Brickworks unit 
can reach the most hotspots. It is even possible— 
with the right combination of rubble and night 
movement— to reach the Sawmill, and this pos- 
sibility should not be discounted before German 
advances preclude it. The Kurgan (#56) is an 
obvious choice to receive an AA unit, but the 
commitment should not be made prematurely lest 
the Stukas decide to take it out while in transit. 
Krutoy Gully (#57) and West Stalingrad (#61) are 
other likely locations. Care must also be taken 
to ensure that the AA units will be in a multi- 
unit group when they are assaulted lest they be 
halved by an infantry attack. 

Before leaving the Tractor Works, we should 
consider the matter of the Russian armor replace- 
ment rate for which there are two schools of 
thought. Those who like to think in terms of 
German dead will want to save their factors 
towards the purchase of a 5-5-6 or 4-4-6 to lead 
attacks. Those more comfortable with passive 
defense will favor using them as quick as they 
can by building 2-2 -6s. The latter strategy gives 
you more steps to satisfy casualty losses plus 
more units with which to plug gaps and extend 
ZOC. Personally, if I'm hard-pressed, I take the 
latter course. Otherwise, I save for the big hit; 
although it is a good idea to always have a Fresh 
unit in the Tractor Works just to keep a ZOC 
around it and prevent any German armor from 
exploiting a breakthrough all the way to the 
Volga. 

MAMAYEV KURGAN (56): *-l-5 

The Kurgan is, simply put, the most valua- 
ble turf in the game and simply must be rein- 
forced with an A A unit unless the Germans are 
totally ignoring the center of the board. More- 
over, a killing ground should be established in 
Stalingradski Airfield (#38) and kept constantly 
manned (see the Leatherworks above) to keep 
German artillery observers off the hill as long 



54 



*?\ *■'*&*} 




as possible. If available, infantry or engineers 
should be spared to entrench and a strong sup- 
porting position established in Krutoy Gully 
(#57), Kurgan with its three Victory Points and 
three Interdiction Points is the key to the game. 
The German can win without it, but the Russian 
can't lose it early and expect to survive. 

BARRACKS HILL, ARMY CAMP (58, 60): 
1-2-4x6 

The action usually flows around these areas 
rather than through them, simply because the 
Central Railway Station (#59) stands behind them 
and blocks the way to the river. Nevertheless, 
entrenchments built here on the opening day are 
invaluable, and for that reason I avoid moving 
these until relieved by the 1 3 th Guards on the 
night of the 14th, Entrenchment attempts 
shouldn't be premature, however, because this 
is the Russian's last manpower reserve and needs 
to be available to fill any sudden gaps. Above 
all, avoid the urge to attack in regimental strength 
with four factors. You need the bodies more than 
you need to create German casualties. 

OVRASHNAYA WOODS, SELENAYA GULLY, 
BANNY GULLY (3940, 55): 5-5-6, 3-2-6, 1-2-4, 
2-3-4 

The historical setup works best. The armor 
is held in the rear, from where they can launch 
counterattacks. The others provide a preliminary 
ZOC to keep the Germans at bay. 

ARTILLERY 

Obviously, Russian artillery cannot be com- 
mitted at every opportunity; but only on a case 
by case basis after weighing such factors as the 
amount of counter-battery, the state of other 
artillery, whether you have pressing needs for 
your next day's impulses, and the importance 
of preserving the unit/area being attacked as 
opposed to the need for that artillery in other crit- 
ical areas either on attack or defense. However, 
there are some general guidelines that can be 
followed. When deciding whether to commit your 
artillery, always assume that the opposing dice 
rolls will be equal and thus negate each other. 
That being the case, win your extra + 1 modifier 
be sufficient to prevent an Overrun, or save/take 
control of an Area? If the answer is "No", you 
probably shouldn't use it. On the other hand, I 
usually use it in the north where the German 
rarely has much counter-battery available. (For 
that reason, as the German, I tend to avoid limited 
offensives in the north.) Lastly, the Russian 
should always refit in the day if no better move 
presents itself; it is the only daylight move which 
cannot backfire. 

REINFORCEMENTS 

Obviously, Russian units should be brought 
across the river as quickly as possible before a 
quick night can leave them stranded on the east 
bank. Almost nothing is more important than 
bringing the next three units across. The land- 
ing area should be as free of interdiction as 
possible. Once landed, the 4-6-4s should not be 
wasted in attacks, but committed to defense. 
These units are simply too valuable on defense 
to be lost in attack. Resist the urge to kill a 
German unit if it means moving a 4-6-4 out of 



55 



a +9 defense position. If you must attack to save 
a crucial area, use armor or infiltration. I like 
to land the 6-7-4 on the fourth Russian impulse 
near the Little Mushroom to head my attack force 
(which can then reach 13 factors with seven units) 
arid free the 5-4-4 for counterattacks elsewhere. 
Land the Engineer where he can do some good 
by entrenching immediately. On the 16th and 
17th, when you have four units available, con- 
sider leaving the fourth behind for the following 
day if you have other pressing needs for your 
night impulses. Never underestimate the value 
of a breakthrough on either flank. The ability to 
land three units per rum free of interdiction can 
be a game winner if the German has taken Mamayev 
Kurgan. Lastly, remember that river traffic can 
move east also. Sending units back across the 
Volga is often the fastest way {or the only way) 
to get them to the opposite end of the board, and 
when coupled with Regrouping disrupted units 
can be downright efficient. 

THE ADVANTAGE 

Another major, John Berry, in critiquing 
TURNING POINT as a simulation (Vol. 26, 
No. 2) panned the Advantage rule as being too 
unrealistic. I saw merit in virtually all of his criti- 
cisms except this one. From both a realism and 
gaming viewpoint, the Advantage rule is ines- 
capably bound into the very essence of this game. 
Without it, the game would never have been 
designed. In its first incarnation in STORM OVER 
ARNHEM, the Advantage rule tended to be over- 
used by players who traded it back and forth in- 
discriminately to negate poor dice rolls. Better 
players realized that one of its best uses was 
simply to deny it to the enemy. In TURNING 
POINT, I went a step further and forbade its use 
again in the same day it was acquired. Now a 
German who can overcome the temptation to use 
it until the last day is guaranteed that it can't be 
used against him. In essence he can have his cake 
and eat it too. Despite that, it is the rare game 
that the German holds onto it that long. Having 
gotten the advantage, the Russian should follow 
the same advice . . . hold it for use on the 19th. 
Hold onto it if at all possible; it is more impor- 
tant than any single unit. The ability to reset any 
day or night and thereby overcome a stroke of 
bad luck is incredibly valuable. As the Russian 
I will rarely attack with my Little Mushroom 
force without the Advantage, but more impor- 
tant tiian safeguarding this kill group is the ability 
to prevent the German from resetting the clock 
on the final day. Having ignored my own advice 
on this subject more times than I can count, I will 
say no more. 

Except to point out that Bruce Degi has now 
seen a Russian win. . 

ft 

For those readers who may be unfamiliar with 
the Expansion Kit for TURNING POINT: STAL- 
INGRAD, it consists of another sheet of counters, 
albwing the game to be extended until 14 Novem- 
ber 1942. No additional rules or other com- 
ponents are required, although players should be 
advised that extending the game does demand a 
greater commitment in terms of playing time. The 
Expansion Kit for TP.S is available for $6.00 
(plus the usual postage and handling; Maryland 
residents please add 5% state sales tax) direct 
from The Avalon Hill Game Company. 



BACK ISSUES 



Only the following back issues of The GENERAL remain in stock; price is $4.00 per issue (plus 
the usual shipping and handling charges). Due to the low quantities of some back issues, if ordering, 
please specify alternative selections. Below is a listing of each in-stock back issue by subject matter; 
game abbreviations are italicized and standard (a partial listing may be found on the "Opponent's 
Wanted" form on the insert of this issue). Type of article is indicated by the following abbreviations: 
H — Historical, DN — Designer's Notes. V — Variant, SR — Series Replay, S— Strategy, Q — Questions, 
P — PBM (postal), Sc— Scenarios, A — Analytical. The featured game for each issue is always the first 
one listed. Those printed in red indicate one-color reprints of previously out-of-stock issues. 




-i 



lEoder(.-i*!:.; 

L " m IfS^ |'_: 




17-4; 
17-5: 
17-6: 
IS-lt 

18-2: 
18-3: 
18-4: 
18-5: 
18-6: 
19-1: 
19-2: 
19-3: 
19-5: 
19-6: 
20-1: 
29-2: 
20-3: 
20-5: 
20-6: 
21-1: 
21-2: 
21-4: 
21-5: 
21-6: 
22-1: 
22-2: 
22-3: 
22^1: 
22-5: 
22-6: 
23-1: 
23-2: 
23-3: 
23-4: 
23-5: 
23-6: 
25-3: 
25-4: 
25-5: 

25-*: 
26-1: 

26-2: 
26-3: 
26-4: 
26-5: 
26-6: 



SL— H, A. DN, Q; WSAIM—A; TRC—S; MD— S; SST— S: 3R— S 

FBS, P, DN, V; MO— V, Q; CO/— SR; VITPS; 1776— Sc; WO— A; SST—V; NAPS 

CM— S, V, Q; RW—V; SL—V; STAL—V; Pi— S; 3R— S. SR; CAE— V; KM— S; MRS 

STALS; WSAIM-V, Sc; WAS— V; 3R— SR; Si— S; TLD—Q; CLS; VITPS; TRC—S 

FITW—A. Q; BIS— S; Si— S; DUNE—V; DIPS; AS— A; PB— SR; ALS; WAP— S 

AF— A. Sc, Q; AK— V; JTt-DN; 7B-V; SL-S, Sc; AIW-V; VrTPS; DIPS: DOS 

GOAS. DN. V, Q; AOC— V, Sc; AK— S; VfTP— V; Si-S, Sc; WSAIMSR, P; DIPS 

GL— H, V, A, Q; SL— Sc. A; Of- V; WAP— SR; AOC— S, P; FE—V; WAS— S: AK—S 

3RS, A. V. DN. Q; Si-S, A. Sc; TEC— V; TB— V; RW—V: Cl^A; DUNE—V 

FT— A. Sc. V. DN; VTTP-V, Q; MD— S, Q; SOTN—A, Q; S£/B-Sc; Si— V 

SOA—A. V. DN, SR, Q: TLD—A, Q; 3R—S, Q; DWTK— DN; 7B— A 

BB—H. Sc, S, DN; TLD—A, Q: Si— V; 3R— S; SO A— SR 

GSL—A. Sc. V, SR, Q; DIP— A; XW— Sc; GE— V; 1776Se; LXT—V, Q; Si— A 

SON— A, S, H, Q; WAP-S. Q: DIP— A; WAT-V: WS&IM-Se; SL-A 

V1TP— PBM, SR. 3R— V. Q. DIP— A: FT— V; BIS—V; NW—A: Si— A. Sc: SOT— V. Sc 

GIS. A, DN, V, Q; VITP— SR 

TT—A. DN. S. Q; MR—V; LRH-A; Si— Sc; WAP— V; GOAS. Q: DIP— A: PL—V 

FREDS, V. Sc. Q; PB— A; /776-Sc; DWTK— S, V. Q; DIP— A, CON—V. S 

BR— SR. S. H, Q; LRT-S; DIP— A: GSL—Sc; GE—A; WSAIMSc; SON—Q 

B-17—A. V. SR. Q: AF— V; LWS; DL—S; FES; DIP— A: MPS; Bff-SR; GOA— Sc; Si— A; Pi— Q 

UFS. A. SR. DN. Q; SOA—S: GI—H, 5; TRCS; DDS 

NABS. DN: W&PS. A. Q; NAPS. Q; DIP— A: FR—S; FES: SRS; BFI—S; 1776— S; Si— A 

PGGS, SR; PB—A; 3RS: TRCS, V. Q; DIP— A; STAL—V, S: St— Sc; PK—Q 

HWS. V, A; MR— S. Q; OR-A, DIP— A; 3R—A; RB-Si COK-V; CIVS: Si— A 

pp_H. V. SR; AIW— S. Sc; BL-V; TAC-V. Q; Si— A; PK—Q 

PAA—A. S. Q; 7B-A. V; OMT/f-DN; TX-V; CSi— PBM; DIP— A: AOCS: WAS— S, Q: AK—V; CIVS; JR—S, Q 

BANZ-A, SR. Q; FT-A, S; SUB—Sc: VJTP—S, Q: AK— Q 

PB-SR; Pi— Sc. V. Q; SOAS; 3R—V; DIP— A; CTV—A; UF—Sc. Q; AIW— S; GOA— A. Q; ItD-A 

RF— A. V. S; 7RC-V; PKS. Q; DIP— A; J/J— V; SUB—V; PPGS 

DEVS, A. Q; OSi-Sc; BR— S; DIP— PBM, A; SC-V; FITG—A; ASLSc. Q 

ASL—A, Sc, DN. Q, PP-Sc; FES, Q; WAS— A; DIP— A: Si— S; TLD— S 

Pi— A, V; DL-V; B-17-V, DN; HWS. Q; VTTP—V; 3R—S; TT—V; LW—V; SST—V; RW-V 

ASL—A, S, Sc, Q: BVSR; UFS; DIP— A; PL— A 

SUB—V, Sc; -«i— S, Sc: BV-SR; HW—V; Si— V, Q; BB—A 

BIAS. DN: WAP— V, S; WSAIMSc; SC-V; NAPS; YSS; 3RS, Q 

KOTA-DN, Sc, Q; WAT— V; B-I7—V, Q; 3R-S: RW-V; ASI^-S, Sc; VITP— S 

/SJ0-DN. S, V, Q; FT— Sc; RB—S; DEV— PBM; CIV— S; MR— S 

PAT— S. H. V, Sc; 7PS-N; AK-V; 3R— Sc. Q; ASL—S; PGG— PBM; PB—A; UF—V; SOA—V; PL— S; BBS 

EIS—S, H, V. Q: WSAIM— V, P. Sc; E1A—V, Q; VITPS; NB— DN; 1776— V 

GE8SSR, V, H, Q; I776S; ASL—H. Sc; FP— Sc; RB—V; OS—\; DEVS; GOA—DH, Q; W&PS, Q; BR— DN 

ASL—H, S, V, A, Sc. Q; PAA—S: RSN-V; UFS; PP-Sc 

MOV— S, DN, V, SR. Q; DE—V; DUf/E—V; DLW-S; KMS: SCS; ASL—A, Q; KR—V. Q; ROR—DN, CIV—V 

TPS—S. DN, SR, Q; PB—Sc; ASL—H. A. Sc: 3R-S. Q; HWS, Q; UF-V: RFS 

MBT-K, S, SR. Q; Ft— V, Sc; FP— Sc: ACQ— S: TAG AIRS 

SOJ—H, DN, S, Q; KM—V; TT—V; CIV—S; DIPS; MR— A; ASL—A 

UF—S, V, SR; AF— V; PT-Sc; B-17—V; FP—V; ASl^-U, Sc, Q 

NB— DN. S, H, Sc, Q: ElASc, V; IS30S; WSAJMSc; DEVS; WAP— Sc 



56 



OLD GAMES NEVER DIE 
THEY JUST FADE AWAY.. 



That's what's happening to the following games. 
Each enjoyed sales notoriety in its day. But that 
day has come and gone, and they will no longer 
appear on our official Dealer Order Form come 
Summer. No . . . we're not out of stock ... yet! 
We have set aside a short supply to meet the 
demand of subscribers and aficionados who have 
been loyal to us. 

One of Many Benefits 
of Subscribing to The Genera/! 

You are the first to be informed. Thus you get first 
dibs. We cannot guarantee how long these games 
will be hanging around. But as they say . . . first 
come, first served. 



*»*>mm mmm 




Fantasy Roleplaying 




DRAGON PASS $20 Catapults 

2 to A adventurous players Into the 
litanic struggles of the mystic and 
dangerous land of Glorantha. 



RUNEQUEST PLAYERS BOX $20 
A cut-down version of the deluxe 

RUNEQUEST game; includes all you 
need to get into role-playing quickly. 



CORAL SEA VARIANT KIT $6 ( no t shown) Includes additional counters and 
maps to tie in with MIDWAY. Ownership of MIDWAY necessary! 

Look for these first at your favorite game store 
— and save on postage and handling. If not available 
locally, feel free to order directly from our Harford 
Road address, attention: "NEARLY OUT OF STOCK 
WAREHOUSE". 

If ordering directly from Avalon Hill, add proper amount 
for postage & handling. Consult Parts List or Order 
Envelope enclosed elsewhere in this magazine. 






The Avalon Hill Game Company 

DIVISION OF MONARCH AVALON, INC 

4517 Harford Road * Baltimore, MD 21214 
TOLL FREE 1-800-999-3222 





¥ t ' 1 










B'lii , f 


r *j 




C 






"^^1 




v 'Jjfi 






Bi 




1 




B 




r--_ 








| -~— . . 






SPICE HARVEST S5 The first of the 
Dune game modules re-crealing the 
conflicts for control of the life- 
preserving mineral. Ownership of 
DUNE necessary. 



THE DUEL $5 a 2nd Dune game 
module that re-creates the situation 
that builds to a crescendo in the 
movie Dune. Ownership ct DUNE 
necessary. 





BOOK OF LISTS S11 Ba Se d on the 

#1 best-selling book; includes "lists" 
from the Bantom book plus many 
new ones not here-to-fore published. 



HEXAGONY S11 A unique abstract 
strategy game that mirrors military 
maneuvers; ideal for 2 to 4 players. 



^oo4srj> 




I , 



£§tt>w6, 




MOONSTAR $11 Unusual boardgame 
containing 1 1 dice, yet no luck is 

involved. Maneuver is the focus in this 
strategy game for 2 or more players. 



TRIVIA S10 Contains 6,600 questions 
and answers on individual cards. 
"Best trivia game among year's lop 
10 boardgames." OMNI Magazine. 
OSA cards playable with Trivial Pursuit. 



57 



Need FTF opponent in Mobile area for TRC. 
MOV. SL, CASS and others. Todd Capes, 1007 
Scacliff Dr.. Daphne, AL 36526, (205) 

KI-1921. 

AREA 1800 looking for AREA 1500+ PBM or 
FIT in 3R. BB'SI and 1776. Any reasonable 
system Jerry Irtgcrsoll, 204 Westbrook, Hot 
Spring ,s AR 71901. (501 1 623 -;1- 101 

HELP! I'm new to the Phoenix area. Are there 

any clubs close by? If so please call me ASAP. 
Wayne Smith. 8527 P- Bctlcview, Scottsdnle. 

AT, 85257, 946-3806. 

Warned: PBM/FTF preferably FTF, AREA/ 
Non-AREA for SL/ASL. AF/DL. FL, AK. 
S0A, CASS. TP:STAL, MD. BL, FE. TRC, 
GE'88.BB'8I, SST, WQ, TLD, SOJ, PL, PB, 
STAL. WAS, UF, TA, CAE, MOV, SC, 3R, 
DE, DIP. FT, KOTA. SGTN, PAA, VfrP, 
SUB, AZ. PCG, BR, FG. Mike Smith, 4519 
South Chatam Ridge, Tucson, AZ 85730. (602) 
886-7802. 

FTF ASL. CAE. 1776. TPS. FT and others in 
North County area. PBM BR, AZ and TRC. 
ASEA and AH IKS member. Chris Burk, 747 W. 
Fallbrook £22, Fallbrook, CA 92028, (619) 

723-2782. 

PBM BRIT, FTF BRIT, 3R, CONQUISTADOR, 
KREM, CIV, DIP, RB, MOV and others. Clubs 
iitTusliilimd Rcdondo Beach. Tony Strong, 1027 E. 
lib St. IS. Long Beach, CA 90813, (213) 

591-0423. 

Adttll gamer seeks FTF opponents for ASL. San 
Fernando Valley area. SL okay; competitive but 
easy going. Don Burton, 16601 Osborne St., 
Sipulveda, CA 91343, (818) 893-3955. 
Seeking FTF opponents for3R in Southern CO. 
S. Nelson, 3120 Post Oak Dr., Colorado 

Springs. CO 80916, (719) 392-6144. 

Experienced 22 year old seeks FTF opponents 
for W&P, FL, F1TG and any other AH or VG 
games. Any clubs in the area? Contact: Luis E. 
Petez, 175 Summit St., Willimantic, CT 06226, 
456-3351 . 

ASL players needed for new ASL interest group. 
Excellent and established facilities. Easy access 
1-95. Pay as you use dues. James Turpin, 420 
Wharton Dr., Newark. DE 19711, (302) 

137-2658. 

Warned Non-rated PBM A1W. Have good PBM 
system. Ron D'Oria. 140 NE 58 Slrcel. Fi. 
Lauderdale, FL 33334. (305) 772-9897. 
12 year ASL veterans challenge any serious 
opponents with guts, to right until you drop. 
ASL sessions in Tampa, FL area. Evan Sherry. 

503 Manatee Dr., Ruskin. FL 33570. 

Ponievedria is a monthly listing of North 
American amateur postal game offerings for DIP, 
its variants and other games. Send a SASE to: 
Phil Reynolds, 2896 Oak St., Sarasota, FL 
34237. 

1 would like to play PL; new to area— but I have 
50 scenarios. I need a PL opponent. Danny Price, 
950 Ml. Vernon Rd.. Tunnel Hill. GA 30755. 

[404)673-6731. 

Magic Realm PBM! Have 5 players— want more! 
Never loo late to join. Beginners welcome also. 
C. Young, 13748 Hooli Circle, Pearl City. HI 

96782-1927. 

Wanted opponents for FTF of FT/BRIT! Bill J 
Deneen, 12408 Maple Ave., Blue Island, IL 

60406-1526, (708) 385-0203. 

Why was Col, Klink afraid of the ' 'Russian 
Front"? Find out for yourself! Seek PBM/FTF 
opponents for TPS and/or RF. Jerry Davis. 1310 
W. Lunt, Apt. 309, Chicago, IL 60626, (312) 
274-1746- 

Witidy City Wargamers meet five limes a month, 
(iw different locations. Sauk Village. N, Chicago, 
S. Chicago. Wrigleyville, Oaklawn. North: Rich 
894-3059. South: Louis Tokarz, 5724 W. 106th, 

Chicago Ridge. IL 60415. 857-7060. 

West Northwest suburbs, adult novice will play 
anyone FTF; been 12 yrs, serious play for fun, 
WS&IM, PB, Star Troopers, 3R, Submarine, 
learn others. Dave DiJulio, 2300 Baysidc Dr. , 

Facalinc. IL 60067. (708) 577-6871. 

WAT, BB'SI, DD. DEV, OE'SS, BR. Douglas 
Gardner. 15 Sartoga Cl,. So, Elgin, IL 60177. 

742-6390. 

Gelling back into gaming after fives years, warn 
Don-competitive, Un-Ratcd PBM for AK. AZ, 
BL. BB, DD, STAL, Darren Breidigan 1317 
Hymelia Ave., Melairic, LA 70003, (504) 
733-5462, 



OPPONENTS WANTED 



Wanted opponents for FTF or PBM 3R, W&P. 
MD, AK, PK, NP. Will travel to play a game 
in Louisiana, Ricei Morau, P.O. Box 1065, 

Ruston, LA 71273, (318) 251-9038. 

Expansion bechons! On eve of 20th consecutive 
season, Avalon Hill's Football Strategy League 
looking for local players for 16 game season. 
D. Greenwood, 1541 Redfield Rd., Bel Air, MD 

21014, 893-0380. 

Taking all AREA Nun- AREA PBM, FTF 3R. 
TRC. RF, TPS opponents. Using honor system. 
Willing to risk it? Try me' David A. Insley, 
Cambridge, MP 21613, (301) 228-9018. 
Wanted: GO A Campaign Game opponents, 
either FTF or at AvalonCon this summer. Use 
3rd edition rules, you pick sides. Rob Beyma, 
109 Brentwood Cir., Potomoke, MD 21851, 
957-3541- 

DIP players— play DIP by mail with the 'zinc 
PROTOCOL or by computer and modem with 
its pleasant counterpart, ELECTRONIC PRO- 
TOCOL. Eric KJrem, 1 Sinni Circle, B10, 
Chelmsford. MA 01824, work- (508) 663-5480. 

home— (508) 250-0820. 

Novice seeks PBM opponent for BL. Craig J. 
McCaul, 4608 Grcenacre Drive. Kalamazoo. Ml 

49009, (616) 349-8073. 

Any gamers in MPLA area? Willing to travel. 
I play ASL, MBT, TLD and others. Dan Reed, 
701 NE 8th St., Buffalo, MN 55313, (612) 

682-2990. 

Too many "Monster" games has dulled my 
SENSES] Vacationing Russian peasant seeks FTF 
only for: Tobruk, Speed Circuit, AIW. Mike 
Riley, 3152 34th Ave S,, Minneapolis, MN 

55406. (612) 721-2319. 

Seeking gamers for special non-tournament TP:S 
event at AvalonCon. Contact: Ken Kloby, 61 
Parkway, May wood, NJ 07607, (201) 368-2793. 
Looking for opponents to join small group in 
Trenton area. We play: CIV, EIA, FE, PAA. 3R, 
W&P, 1776, Fred. Aaron E. Smith, 1345 S. Old- 
cn Ave , Trenton. NJ 08610. (609) 396-8686. 
FTF. PBM wanted in Las Vegas area; CIV, DIP, 
GOA, HW, TRC, RF, 3R Pacific War. Dennis 
Clark. P.O. Box 85321 . Las Vegas, N V 89 185. 
Opponents wanted for FTF UF, DEV, TPS, GL, 
SO A and others. Joe Fuest, 2486 Chuck Road, 

Attica, NY 14011, (716) 591-2659. 

Opponents wanted. I own over 200 titles includ- 
ing ASL, ROR. CIV. KM, TRC. 3R, TT, VTTP, 
W&P, WSIM. DIP and NW. Sean McKenzie, 
7022 Ridge Blvd., Apt. 4C, Brooklyn, NY 

11209, (718)680-5249. 

Queens resident looking for NYC area opponents 
for serious, FTF FL, AF, UF, WSIM, RW and 
olhcr games. Adults, please. David Angus, 98-17 
H. H. Expwy., 08-C, Corona. NY 1 1368, (718) 

271^428, 

ASL players in NYC? Long Island? How about 
Red Barricades. 1 need yout Jonathan Nywcsra, 
35-22 191 Street. Queens, NY 11358, (718) 
461-6588, 

Looking for SO A and CASS opponenis for 
AvalonCon. We can play the SO A variant. For 
CASS we'll go the distance. John P. Caccioppoli, 
1874 Putnam Avenue. Ridgewood, NY 11385, 

(718) 82 1-8426. 

Picdmoni Area Wargamers can put you in touch 
with a variety of gamers in the Piedmont region 
of NC. Contact: Raymond Woloszyn, 7162 
ManUewood Ln., Kemersville, NC 27284, (919) 

996-5677. 

UF. SL. AK, ANZ, MD, VfTP, Fleet Series in 
Eastern NC? Experienced adult gamer will play 
anlhing FTF! Tom Blake, 4202 Terrtops Cir., 
Winterville, NC 28590, (919) 756-3624. 
FTF GE'77, JUT, FRED. FTF or PBM TRC, 
STAL. VITP, WSIM. James J. Scott, 5741 
Kroegermount Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45239, (513) 
923-1684. 

Beginning adult gamer in North Central OH area 
willing to lake his lumps; seeks FTF opponenis 
forBB, SO A. CASS, STAL. John Simatacolos. 
25 Cedargate Court, Galion, OH 44833, (419) 

462-5883. 

Looking for Rated PBM or PBEM on GENie, 
TPS, PGG and any VG games. Willing to learn 
others. Ken Mikolaj, 5603 Snow Rd., Parma, 
OH 44129, (216) 884-4921. 



10 ASL'ers in OKC/Tulsa Metro! More players 
in our stale? For fun & future OK Stale Cham- 
pionship. Novice welcome. Call or write, John 
H, Farris. P.O. Box 547, Norman, OK 73070, 
/Home/ (405) 799-8691. /Office/ (405) 

364-3300- 

Seeking occasional 3R FTF 4th edition opponents 
in greater OK-C area. John Michalski, Box 

60665, Okla City, OK 73146. 

Need opponents for ASL FTF or PBM need sys- 
tem. Anyone on South coast or Eugene area? 
Keith Todd. P.O. Box 644, Reedspon, OR 

97467, 271^1628. 

Join Perm-Jersey Gamers! We meet monthly near 
Phila. All games, no role-playing. Newsletter, 
tournaments and raffle. Send SASE to: Jim 
Vroom. 2290 Galloway Rd,, A-23, Bensalem. 

PA 19020. 

Average adult gamer seeks FTF and possibly 
PBM opponenis for ASL, BB, AIW, PL and 
oeher AH tides. Have large game collection. Paul 
Lcdakowich, 3620 New Hampshire Ave., 

Easton, PA 18042. (215) 250-2795. 

28 year old seeks FI"F opponents for ASL. 3R 
and FT. James M. Mate, 435 Abbeyvill Rd.. 
Apt. #10, Pittsburgh, PA 15228, (412) 831-3605. 
FTF opponenis wanted for VITP, WAS, SO A, 
KOTA and RW, Willing to learn new games, in- 
cluding sports games. All rcplys answered. Bob 
Kondracki, 237 N. 6th St.. Reading, PA I960 1 , 

(215) 375-9197. 

Opponents wanted for FTF ASL and VG Fleet 
scries. Willing to travel; also desire PBM AK. 
Tom Wenck. 219 Mariners Row, Columbia, SC 

29212. (803) 781-9798. 

Wanted opponenis for FTF ASL, SL and other 
WWII games in Charleston or Cola area. Will 
travel reasonable distance. Eric Poplin, 1978 
Blythewood Ct., Ml. Pleasant. SC 29464. (803) 

881-5573. 

ASL'ers in East Tennessee UNITE! Join E.T. 
Tacticians- Meeting in Jefferson City every 2nd 
Sunday. For all ASL'ers inET. Tim Deane, 720 
Carolyn Dr., Jefferson City, TN 37760. 

475-9286. 

EIA Campaign PBM, Simo* move and combat. 
Send SASE for details. Lance Jones, 3095 

Robbieton, Memphis, TN 38128. 

New gamer seeking a challenge AREA 1500 DD, 
GE'8S, BR, WSIM, STAL, BB, WAT, MD, 
DEV. 1776. AK, PBM/FTF. Asher Gaylord- 
Ross, 196 Forestwood Dr., Nashville, TN 

37209, (615) 356-0945. 

The Washington Gamers meel twice monthly. 
Join and gel our newsletter of articles, notices 
and ads- 1 year (6 issues). Dennis Wang, 2200 
Huntington Ave., Alexandria, VA 22303. (703) 
960-1259. 

Rclircd Army Ll.Col. AREA 1200 seeks PBM 
AK, BB, FE, PB and TRC opponenis. Also FTF 
Napolcnoic Board/Miniature gamers. Sam 
Wilson, Jr., 8925 Park Forest Drive, Springfield, 

VA 22152, (703) 569-2056. 

ASL, CM, CIV, FL. MR, MOV, 3R, TT, UF 
and WSIM. John Walker, 4408 Lindcnwood Ct., 
Virginia Beach, VA 23456, (804) 431-8549. 
Help form club in Tri-City area. War and Sports 
games. Lets gel together for better competition, 
if interested contact: Wayne Vertz, 6129 W. 
Willamette Ave.. Kcnnewick, WA 99336, (509) 

735-4487. 

PBM or FTF wanted for CIV, PB. PL or possi- 
bly others. 30 year old family man. Novice, 
Randy Tober, 26820 1 37th PI SE, Kent, WA 

98042, (206) 630-3164. 

AREA Rated 1500 Prov seeks PBM opponents 
for WSIM, AF. Looking for FTF players in 
Seattle area. Troy Roper, 8010 I I8lh Ct. NE.. 

Kirkland, WA 98033, (206) 828-0652. 

Want to play for fun almost anything FTF one 
night per week. Can leave games set up. Any 
clubs here? Jim Mitchell. 1702 SE Oxford St., 

Richland, WA 99352, (509) 627-1469. 

Adult seeks opponent for GE, ASL, TLD. LRT, 
PB, PL. TRC, SOA, 3R and many more. Call 
any time. Joey Sabin, 8521 Zireon Drive S.W-, 
IJD66. Taeoma, WA 98498. (206) 581-0103. 
Fox Valley Gamers meet on the 2nd and 4th 
Saturday of each monlh. New members welcome! 
Newsletter! For information contact: William 



Jacohsen. 1309 Liberty Ct.. Neenah, Wl 54956, 

(414) 722-6187. 

ASL enthusiast in B.C. Canada, looking for 
experienced opponent. Will try PBM. Rene K.B. 
Hanker, #1302 E. 37 Ave.. Vancouver. B.C. 

V5W-1G5, 322-6698. 

Newly formed Kingston Wargamers Assoc, seeks 
opponent-clubs for Non-AREA. club-level, 
team-effort PBM DIP game drat we'll be running 
soon. Send SASE: The KWA. c/o 545 Bagot St. . 
Kingston, Ontario. Canada K7K 3E1, (613) 

542-2091. 

AF, DL, FT, 3R, in order of preference. Denis 
Rufiange, 92 Bclangcr, Lasallc, Quebec, Canada 
HSR 3K6, (514) 366-6672. 

AREA Rated player (1500 verified), is looking for 
PB/PL games. Send scenario list with rules. All 
replies answered- Jeff Wolff. P.O. Box 343, Willow 
Bund], SK, Canada SOH 4K0. (306) 473-2222. 
Hey Yankees! Experienced Brazilian players want 
opponents to PBM. I bet you lose! Need system. All 
letters answered. EIA, FE, GOA. RF, W&P, WSIM, 
3R. Nedilson Jorge. SQN 307, "B" ap 301, Brasilia, 
DE 70746, (0055) (61) 347-2532. Csuiary: Brasili. 
Looking for serious adult FTF in Wvcrzburg, 
Germany. Play AREA (1600 Verified) or 
Unrated. Have 3R. PK. FE and more. Terence 
Zuber. Kant Str 35, 87 Wverzburg, Germany, 

0931 SS3675. 

Eager beginner seeking rated PBM gamers for 
SL. May talk about RPGs. too. All letters 
answered. Mitsuhiro Abe, 8-12-719, Hikarigaoka 
3-chomc, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 179, Japan, (03) 

976-8230. 

30-year old seeks PBM opponents for ASL, 
TLD. 6ih FLT. 7th FLT, 2nd FLT. Has anyone 
devised a good PBM system for ASL? Pascal 
St&ldcr, Rue Jean Leeonite 3, 1422 Grandson, 
Switzerland, (024)242165. 



lUllliUI .O.IIOI IIOllDIIOIIDillOl OHIO 



AVALONCON 

ROOMMATE WAN TED for AvalonCon. Am male, 
age 26. Non-smoker only. Jerry Ingersoll, 204 
Westbrook, Hot Springs, AR 71901: (501) 

623-5404. 

ROOMMATE WANTED for AvalonCon. Am male, 
age 31. Non-smoker only. Tony Strong, 1027 
East7lhSlrecl US, Long Beach, CA 90813: 013) 

591-0423. 

ROOMMATES WANTED for AvalonCon. Atlanta 
Boardgame Club, P.O. Box 13403, Adanta. GA 

30324; (404) 233-7827. 

TEAMMATES WANTED for AvalonCon. Tony 
Strong, 1027 Easl 7th Street ttS, Long Beach, CA 
90813; (213) 591-0423. Personal Game Prefer- 
ences: BRITANNIA & CIVILIZATION. 



58 




TURNING POINT: STALINGRAD 

8.12 If a unit makes an Overrun attack* Can it 
leave the now vacant area and re-enter it in {he 
same impulse? 

A- Yes, but other units which did not participate 
in the Overrun cannot, 

8.352F Does the DV modifier for German 

attacks made after September 26th apply even if 

the attack is an air or artillery attack? 

A. No. 

10.4 If an artillery observer enters an enemy- 

occupied area, does it suffer disruption along 

with accompanying combat units due to the 

attack? 

A* Artillery which enters an enemy-occupied 

area does not suffer Disruption as a result of the 

attack of accompanying combat units: it is spent 

for one day only due to movement. 

14.6 It" an Engineer enters an enemy-occupied 

Area and makes an Overrun attack versus (he 

rubble therein, can other forces which started 

with the Engineer also enter the same Area and 

attack it in the same impulse? 

A. Yes. 

14.6B If an Engineer enters a vacant encmy- 

controlled Area containing rubble, does (be + 1 

Rubble DV modifier for " enemy-controlled" 

apply to the entering Engineer's rubble removal 

attack? 

A, No; at that point the Area is no longer 

' ' enemy -controlled ' T - 

14.6E Is the Rubble DV modifier for Russian 

artillery always *"+l"? 

A. Nn . . ii Increases as the Russian artillery 

strength increases. 

I4.6E Si 15,3 Can Russian artillery be used to 
supplement the Rubble DV in an Area contain- 
ing no Russian units? 
A, No. 

KREMLIN 

Q. Can a Politician purge himself, or place him- 
self under suspicion, or put himself on trial? 

A. No r 

Q. If the Foreign Minister has no declared IP 
and his first nomination for Party Chief {the 
oldest eligible Politician) fails, docs he nominate 
the oldest eligible Politician who votes against 
the nomination? 
A, Yes, 

Q. In the REVOLUTION variant, if a historical 
Politician dies from old age or retires, does his 
Replacement appear in the People? 
A. Yes. 



Q. In the REVOLUTION variant, do Politicians 
in Siberia also age for each red cross on their 
card? 
A. No. 



ADVANCED SQUAD LEADER 

A4. 151 If a MMC enters a Location expending 
twice the normal MP in order to conduct an In- 
fantry OVR, is Defensive First Fire versus it 
emanating from some other Location conducted 
before or after the SMC enters an Accessible 
Location? Before or after the Infantry CC attack 
(if any) is resolved? 
A. After. Before, 

A4.63 May a Dashing unit expend an extra MF 
in the road Location (e.g,* to Recover a SW> and 
still receive Dash benefits if it otherwise qualifies 
for them? 

A, A Dashing unit may expend no MF in the 
road beyond the minimum required to enter it. 

A 18.2 & A25.22 May a Russian S-0 or 8-1 
generated by Leader Creation be exchanged for 
a Commissar? 
A. No- 

C1.6 May an Observer use a radio during the 
PFPh and then during the MPh bt* moved by the 
vehicle he occupies? May this be done if he is 
Inherent in. an OP tank? 
A. No to both. 

D9.31 If Infantry using Armored Assault breaks, 
docs it still receive the + I TEM for the vehicle 
if the latter remains in the Infantry's Location? 
If the AFV ends its MPh in Motion? 
A. Yc£ r No (hut note mat Motion status does not 
apply until the end of the Vehicle MPh). 

F.ID May an Inherent crew place vehicular 
smoke grenades into an adjacent Location? May 
such grenades be WK If the crew fails such a 
placement attempt, may it still attempt to fire the 
vehicle's Smoke Dispenser in the same phase? 
A. No to all — nor may the crew attempt to place 
smoke grenades in the same phase in which it has 
attempted (whether successfully or not) to fire 
its Smoke Dispenser. 

FORTRESS EUROPA 

Q. May Allied units move to a flooded port hex, 
such as Amsterdam, and evacuate out via sea 
movement (to F.ngland), all in the same move? 
A. Yes. 

Q, Can paratroopers, Rangers or commandos be 
used to fulfill ihe infantry unit requirement for 
repairing damaged ports/Mulberries? 
A. No; this must be a regular infantry unit. 



f~ 



SHELL SHOCK 

Two-Player AMBUSH 

With but seven responses to the rating 
survey, not loo many conclusions about the 
worth of SHELL SHOCK can be drawn. The 
low sample base may also help explain the 
rather poor showing (notably in terms of 
Overall Value, Ratebook and Completeness) 
in comparison with its AMBUSH brethcrn. 
With so few, one or two high-valued responses 
have a great impact on the final average. 
This is the primary' reason why we do not 
now list any evaluation of a title with less 
than 50 responses on the continuing RBG 
Chan, and why the sample base for each is 
shown on that chart. Opinions on the design 
and artistic elements of any w&rgame are 
subjective; only by blending the views of a 
wide variety of gamers can any approach to 
objectivity be claimed. 

Perhaps the only entry in the values 
presented for SHELL SHOCK that can have 
any validity ntighi be that for "Game 
Length.*". The collective judgement by the 
seven responding lends to bear out my own 
observations- And it is remarkably similar 
to me "Game Length''' values for FIRE- 
POWER, another man-to-man two-player 
wargamc. However, if the reader-generated 
^Complexity" ratings are to be taken as 
reliable (certainly a quesdonable assumption 



$35.00 



in Ihe case of SHELL SHOCK), any 
similarity between the two games ends there, 
Needless-lo-say, with but .seven responses 
to draw upon, the RBG ratings for SHELL 
SHOCK (tike that of several titles recently) 
wil not appear on the continuing chart; for 
those who may be interested in this game, 
listed below are the ratings for this game, 
based on the limited reader-response to the 
survey: 

Overall Value: S. 1 1 
Components: 3.32 
Map: 3.74 
Counters: 2.95 
Rulebook: 6.44 
Complexity: 4.58 
Completeness of Rules: 5.46 
Play ability: 3.82 
Excitement Level: 3.04 
Play Balance: 3.65 
Authenticity: 3.89 
Game Length (average): 15.45 

Shortest: 1 hr., 51 mins. 

Longest: 4 hrs., 36 mins. 
Year: 1989 



READERS BUYER'S GUIDE 

The following games are ranked by their reader-generated overall Value rating. 
Further aspects of reader response to our titles are indicated by the ratings 
in other categories. By breaking down a game's ratings into these individual 
categories, the gamer is able to discern for himself where the title's strengths 
and weaknesses lie in the qualities he values highly. Readers are reminded 
that ratings take the form of a numerical value ranging from 1 to 9 (with "1" 
equalling "excellent" and "9" equalling "terrible"). However, the Game Length 
category is measured in multiples of ten minutes (thus, a rating of "18" equates 
to three hours). A "+" following the Year of release indicates that the game 
is continued or complemented by additional modules in successive years (for 
instance* tine ratings for SL reflect the entire system— original game plus add-on 
modules). Game "type is broken down into three broad categories: SO = Solitaire; 
MP=Multi-Player; 2P=Two Player. Finally, it should be noted that a minimum 
requirement of 50 responses (see the "Sample Base") was judged necessary 
for a valid representation; additional titles that garner such will be added to 
the RBG in the future. 

WARGAME RBG 



Title 


'1 


! 
1 
I 

u 


u 


1 

■ 

1 

1 


1 
I 


] 


J 


1 


1 


\i 


ADVANCED SL 


1.80 


1.77 


9.25 


2.11 


3.44 


2.04 


33.02 


1985+ 


2P 


172 


1830 


1.85 


2.00 


3.88 


2.72 


2.04 


3.20 


24.52 


1986 


MP 


50 


CMUZATION 


1.97 


2.60 


3.20 


2.03 


1.72 


4.C9 


32.08 


1932 


MP 


152 


FLATTOP 


2,00 


2,47 


3,61 


3.12 


3.B6 


1.76 


43.96 


1981 


2P 


95 


EMPIRES IN ARMS 


2.08 


2.45 


8.08 
3.42 


2.94 

3.B6 


3.84 
2.23 


2.11 


156.86 


1936 
1989 


MP 
2P 


71 


TP: STALINGRAD 


2.10 


2.14 


2.94 


30.00 


61 


UP FRONT 


2.T. 


2.24 


4.36 


2.83 


2.38 


3.56 


10.16 


1983+ 


2P 


126 


RUSSIAN FRONT 


2.12 


2.33 


5.32 


2.88 


2.67 


2.40 


40.16 


1985 


2P 


113 


KREMLIN 


2.28 


2.51 


3.64 


3.33 


1.81 


5.24 


11.94 


1988 


MP 


63 


BRTTANNIA 


2.31 


3.08 


2.93 
5.02 


2.89 
2,91 


2.07 
2.77 


3.62 
2.72 


23.72 
33.66 


1987 
1988 


MP 


77 


TAC AIR 


2.38 


2.39 


2P 


38 


GETTYSBURG 


2.42 


2.61 


1.79 


3.32 


1.64 


4.43 


9.11 


1988 


2P 


66 


MERCHANT OF VENUS 


2.50 


2.42 


3.38 


2.46 


2.23 


3.53 


15.42 


1988 


MP 


79 


VITP 


2.55 


3.12 


2.56 


3.32 


1.91 


5.56 


21.09 


1977 


2P 


183 


RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN 


2.60 
2.61 


3.35 
2.88 


3.85 
2.30 


3.10 
2.63 


2.28 
1.87 


4.22 
5.76 


35.44 
7.73 


1876 


2F" 


220 


ENEMY IN SIGHT 


1988 


MP 


68 


7th Fleet 


2.62 


2.77 


6.47 


2.96 


3.04 


3.16 


38.01 


1987 


?F 


50 


CASSINO 


2.68 


2.71 


4.43 


2.76 


2.32 


2.63 


23.67 


1988 


2P 


52 


DIPLOMACY 


2.71 


3.36 


3,00 


2.69 


2.92 


5.16 


33.26 


1976 


MP 


169 


ST. NAZAIRE 


2.72 
2.76 


2.56 
3.03 


4.01 
6.42 


3.12 
3.63 


2.80 
3.76 


2.52 
2.83 


18.92 
15.48 


1987 


so 

2P 


93 


FIREPOWER 


1985 


94 


STORM OVER ARNKEM 


2,78 


2.68 


3.84 


2.84 


2.32 


3.49 


24.35 


1981 


2P 


87 


PUGHT LEADER 


2.79 


2.20 


4.62 


3.00 


2.77 


3.20 


10.18 


1986 


2P 


76 


BULL RUN 


2.80 


2.67 


3.80 


2.95 


2.96 


2.93 


23.76 


1983 


2P 


62 


MBT 


2.80 


2.68 


5.37 


3.16 


3.36 
3.52 


2.57 
2.61 


15.06 
24.58 


1989 
19B6 


2P 
2P 


61 


DEVILS DEN 


2.81 


2.85 


5.04 


2.99 


60 


B-17 


2.83 


2.87 


2.93 


2.83 


2.00 


3.33 


8.82 


1983 


SO 


192 


SQUAD LEADER 


2.84 


2.11 


8.05 


3.68 


4.27 


3.00 


21.37 


1977 + 


2P 


231 


2nd Fleet 


2.89 


3.35 


5.27 


3.44 


3.28 


3.55 


32.23 


1986 


ii' 


55 


WS&IM 


2.92 


3.24 
3.56 


5.64 
8-83 


3.00 


3.04 


2.60 


20.07 


1975 


2P 


172 


THIRD REICH 


2.95 


3.70 


4.00 


3.51 


45.83 


1981 


MP 


227 


BULGE '81 


2.96 


3.11 


4.21 


3.24 


2.S2 


3.19 


28.02 


1981 


2P 


155 


PANZER LEADER 


3.12 


2.79 


5.63 


3.72 


3.32 


3.82 


19.47 


1974 


2P 


210 


WAR & PEACE 


3.13 


3,44 


4.55 


3.68 


2.95 


3.15 


36.80 


1980 


2P 


138 


TITAN 


3.16 


2.68 
3.69 


3.48 
6.95 


2.66 
3,92 


2.47 
4.17 


4.48 
3.58 


29.08 
46.96 


1982 
1983 


MP 


65 


Civil War 


3.20 


2P 


112 


DUNE 


3.21 


2.48 


3.29 


2.93 


2.88 


4.28 


15.84 


1979 + 


MP 


S! 


MAGIC REALM 


3.29 


2.44 


B.41 


4.08 


4.20 


3.79 


20.76 


1979 


MP 


75 


Battle Hymn 


3.32 


333 


5.24 


4.32 


3.48 


3.89 


21.26 


1986+ 


SO 


51 


NAVAL WAR 


3.35 


4,20 
3.12 


1.12 


3.40 


1.60 


6.72 


6.00 


1933 


MP 


81 


STARSMIP TROOPERS 


3.36 


4.84 


3.32 


3.20 


3.12 


16.37 


1976 


2P 


110 


KINGMAKER 


3.39 


3.21 


5.65 


4.48 


3.49 


4.63 


27,98 


1976 


MP 


141 


PG GUDERIAN 


3.40 


3.24 


5.44 


3.20 


3.28 


3.32 


22.87 


1984 


2P 


90 


PATTON'S BEST 


3.43 


3.22 


4.16 


4.23 


3.25 


3.87 


14.13 


1987 


SO 


109 


GLADIATOR 


3.44 


3.36 
3.60 


3.89 
3.28 


3.32 
3.39 


2.56 
2.64 


3.20 
3.36 


8.69 
11.70 


1981 
1980 


2P 


56 


CIRCUS MAXIMUS 


3.47 


2P 


91 


6th Fleet 


3.48 


3.04 


5.64 


3.73 


3.88 


3.64 


47.67 


1985 


2P 


59 


AIR FORCE 


3.48 


4.27 


5.36 


3.64 


3.61 


3.12 


12.90 


1980+ 


2P 


76 


ARAB-ISRAELI WARS 


3.49 


3.25 


6.33 


3.72 


3.52 


3.72 


16.37 


1977 


JP 


123 


PANZERBUT2 


3.56 
3.63 


3.5S 
3.68 


4.92 
4.23 


4.18 
3.36 


3.26 
3,19 


4.50 


18.25 


1970 


2P 


215 


PA AFRIKA 


3.88 


25.14 


1881 


2P 


80 


Pacific War 


3.64 


3.57 


7.98 


4.32 


5.28 


3.19 


120.63 


1986 


2P 


66 


Pax Britannia 


3.64 


3.60 


4.86 


3.91 


4.25 


4.61 


52.14 


1935 


MP 


50 


MIDWAY 


3.65 


4.48 


2.80 


3.16 


2.43 


4.52 


21.10 


1964 


2P 


130 


DWTK 


3,68 


3.56 
4.08 


4.88 
4.94 


4.28 
4.40 


3.85 
3.91 


3.89 
4.61 


22.82 

19.69 


1981 


MP 


52 


Ambush 


3.68 


1983+ 


SO 


121 


FORTRESS EUROPA 


3,73 


3.23 


5.36 


3.78 


3.88 


3.57 


42.44 


1980 


2P 


167 


AFRIKA KORPS 


3.77 


4.43 


2.20 


2.84 


1.88 


5.40 


21.44 


1964 


2P 


167 


HITLEH'S WAR 


3.80 


3.89 


4,20 


4.25 


3.44 


4.68 


34,79 


1984 


2P 


78 


WIZARD'S QUEST 


3.82 


3.07 


2.11 


2.94 


2.15 
5.26 


4.92 
3.75 


20.92 
90.86 


1979 
1984 


MP 


85 


Vietnam 


3.89 


3.35 


8.60 


3.83 


2P 


60 


WAR AT SEA 


4.04 


3.94 


1.40 


3.40 


1.37 


6.72 


12.80 


1976 


2P 


155 


BUTZKRIEG 


4.19 


4.36 


5.84 


3.87 


3.60 


5.57 


33.76 


1965 


2P 


136 


1776 


4.25 


3.64 


5.28 


3.88 


3.24 


4.40 


26.30 


1974 


2P 


154 


D-DAY 


4.32 


4.73 
3.78 


3.56 
3.99 


3.46 
3.60 


2.91 
3.24 


5.08 
4.87 


27.16 
8.23 


1977 


2P 


125 


RICHTHOFEN'S WAR 


4,33 


1983 


2P 


53 


PANZERKRIEG 


4.35 


4.02 


5.11 


3.84 


3.83 


3.28 


24.49 


1973 


2P 


137 


GUNS OF AUGUST 


4.41 


4.00 


5.32 


4.56 


4,51 


3.83 


44,72 


1981 


2P 


139 


WATERLOO 


4.44 


4.48 


2.24 


3.08 


2.21 


5.55 


17.99 


1962 


2" 


104 


M.-isLv/s Raid 


4.53 


4.55 


4.63 


4,36 


4.42 


5.13 


20.85 


1985 


50 


60 


LUFTWAFFE 


4.80 


4.27 


4.16 


4.08 


3.91 


5.33 


20.08 


1971 


:y 


170 



59 



Surprisingly, Steve Swann's ASL piece 
took top honors among the offerings in Vol. 
26, No. 5— at least in the view of the ma- 
jority of readers responding to our survey. It 
even beat out Watney's fine article on the 
popular UP FRONT and the Series Replay on 
that game. Overall, the collective readership 
gave Vol. 26, No. 5 a thumbs up— a cumula- 
tive rating of 3.22. Based on a random sam- 
pling of 200 responses (with three points for 
a first-place mention, two for a second and 
one for a third), the articles rated as follows: 

RED DEVILS 258 

501 CITYFIGHT-IN-FOUR 198 

THE MORAL DIMENSION 191 

SERIES REPLAY 156 

BATTLES FOR THE SOUTH PACIFIC . 106 

OPERATION PORCUPINE . 66 

OVER THE FENCE 58 

AH PHILOSOPHY 54 

THE LONG CAMPAIGN 42 

R.A.A.F. 18 

SPORTS SPECIAL 15 

COMPUTER CORNER 13 

ODD MAN IN 11 

AREA NEWS 9 

COMING ATTRACTIONS 5 

Kevin Kinsel has for some time been an 
active member of AREA, a fine gamer, and 
a fierce competitor. Now he has become a 
'line publisher. D.O.G.S. of War is a monthly 
publication, with a wide variety of subjects 
under its banner. Among the moderated 
postal games being reported upon in the two 
latest issues are DIPLOMACY, BRITANNIA, 
WS&IM, MACHIAVELLl and a "blind" game 
of PANZER LEADER. D.O.G.S. also serves as 
"house organ" for the club in Orange County 
of the same name, and news of their doings 
fills out its pages. Subscription rate for Kevin's 
effort is $5.00 for 12 issues. Readers with 
questions about either the 'zine or the club 
should contact Mr. Kinsel (21561 Oakbrook, 
Mission Viejo, CA 92692). 

The die-hard ASL players have often 
lamented the fact that there Is no single com- 
pilation of "official" answers to their ques- 
tions. Well, now— for a fee of $1.00 to cover 
copying costs and a SASE for mailing — Rick 
Troha offers just such an aid. Taken (with per- 
mission) from the pages of The GENERAL and 
the ASL Annual, he has put all of the Q&As 



Infiltrator's Report 



concerning the game on disc and regularly 
produces high-quality updates. In addition, he 
adds those received In personal correspon- 
dence with Bob McNamara; so, some of this 
material is seeing print for the first time. In 
short. Rick's effort is a boon for ASLers, 
regardless of their level of experience and 
expertise. More information on the "ASL 
Q&A" can be obtained from Mr. Troha (4485 
Oak Circle, North Olmsted, OH 44070). 

Also for the hard-core fans of ASL is a new 
amateur publication— At The Point. The offer- 
ing of Marc Hanna, it is devoted exclusively 
to analysis of the play and tactics of that 
system. No scenarios are envisioned, and 
fanzine-style reportage will be kept to a 
minimum. The first issue carries the usual 
introductions, a look at AFV platoon move- 
ment by Bruce Bakken, some little known 
effects of rules by Mark Nixon, first impres- 
sions of CODE OF BUSHIDO, cavalry tactics 
by Kurt Martin, and the first half of a Series 
Replay of "The Bread Factory" (Scenario 
RB2). Along with letters and the occasional 
editorial, Mr. Hanna seeks to insure that the 
'zine is a forum for those who are— or would 
be— experts. Judging by the initial effort, it 
looks to be a fine addition to the growing ASL 
hobby. Published 10 times a year, a sub- 
scription will be $15 for US readers ($16 
Canadian/Mexican; $20 overseas). More in- 
formation on ATP can be obtained from Marc 
Hanna (718 Bounty Drive, #1820, Foster 
City, CA 94404). 

Recently, DIPLOMACY WORLD, the flag- 
ship 'zine of the DIP hobby in the United 
States, underwent a change of publishers. 
The new editor/publisher is David Hood 
(104-F Terrace Drive, Cary, NC 27511), an 
icon in the hobby's amateur press. Taking over 
from long-time editor Larry Peery, David 
brought a new look and fresh ideas to the 
venerable DW. The latest issue (#61) is very 
professional in appearance, displaying the best 
of desktop publishing, and reproduced on 
recycled newsprint. A larger type size and 
sleek format (chocked full with articles on 
strategy, variants, hobby news and ratings 



dealing with DIPLOMACY] makes it well 
worth the annual subscription price ($10 per 
year for US subscribers, $ 1 5 for Canadian) for 
four 32-page issues. Those interested in more 
information on DW, or the DIPLOMACY hobby 
in general, are urged to write Mr. Hood. 

Congratulations are due to Wayne Oldaker, 
who won the Avalon Hill FOOTBALL STRA- 
TEGY League for the first time after 16 years 
as an "also-ran" coach. Oldaker's Raiders 
edged the Giants (Cliff Willis), who were thus 
denied the brass ring for the fourth time in 
as many trips to our Avalon Hill SuperBowl. 
Those in the Baltimore-Washington region in- 
terested in participating in the 28-team league 
next season are urged to contact the de facto 
commissioner Don Greenwood. 

Northern Flame is "a magazine of postal 
DIPLOMACY and its variants, fantasy and 
science fiction, baseball, sports, scruples and 
just about whatever else Ye Olde Editor and 
his minions feel like inserting." "Ye Olde 
Editor" is Mr. Cal White (1 Turnberry Avenue, 
Toronto, Ontario M6N 1P6). This rather free- 
form Canadian 'zine has a lively and fascinat- 
ing letters column, and serves as home to 
several international PBM DIP games. (The 
most recent issue announced openings in a 
new game, with nine-week deadlines using 
the British system of conditional builds, for 
which a Canadian and two German nationals 
had already signed up.) Subscriptions to the 
monthly Northern Flame are as free-form 
as the 'zine's contents: three cents per page 
plus postage, with $10 (Canadian) recom- 
mended by the editor to begin. For more in- 
formation, contact Mr. White by post or by 
phone (416-654-1722). 

Contest #153, crafted just to see if you 
were paying attention, brought a slew of 
responses. As many of them were correct, we 
were reduced to the much-maligned "random 
drawing" to determine our ten winners. Each 
will receive a $10 mechandise credit voucher: 
Alan Arvold, Des Plaines, IL; James Bennett, 
Overland Park, KS; Douglas Bloomer, Eugene, 
OR; Brian Carr, Charlottesville, VA; Pat Cook, 
Vallejo, CA; Kirk Crane, Las Vegas, NV; Tom 
Lavan, El Toro, CA; Gary Lee, Madison, Wl; 
Briaux Philippe, Paris, France; Jeff Tabian, 
South Holland, IL. 




60 




A GAME of 
Political Intrigue with 
Military Overtones 

REPUBLIC OF ROME is a multi-player, diplomacy 
game set in ancient Rome which spans more than 
200 years of the republic from the Punic Wars to the 
assassination of Julius Caesar and the onset 
of the Empire. 



Players vie to control the Senate while also cooperating for the good of 
the state against Rome's enemies. It is this constant balancing act between 
personal advancement and the welfare of the state that sets REPUBLIC 
OF ROME apart from ordinary games. If the players allow their personal 
goals to interfere too heavily with the republic's best interests, the people 
may revolt or the state may fall to foreign conquest and all players will be 
put to the sword. Not since KINGMAKER and CIVILIZATION have so 
many innovative concepts appeared in a multi-player boardgame. 

Not a wargame in the traditional sense, it is a game of political 
intrigue with military overtones that literally oozes the rich detail 
of the period's history. A deck of 192 illustrated cards sets the 
scene for the panoramic spectacle that was the Roman republic. 
As that history unfolds before them, each player's faction of 
influential Senators vies for political power, military commands, 
and economic advantages against the backdrop of a turbulent 
world. Deals and counter-offers abound. Short the necessary votes 
for Consul? Trade the Armaments Concession for a faction's 
support. Spartacus has destroyed your villa? Send Pompey off 
with ten legions to crush him. But is that too much power to 
entrust to one man? What if Pompey rebels and marches on 
Rome? Such checks and balances abound in a game replete with 
moves and countermoves as historical figures with special 
capabilities appear and die with the passing years. All of the great 
names of Rome and those who opposed them appear once again 
to contest control of the Mediterranean. Wars, revolts, droughts, 
epidemics, and a host of other random events flash before the 
paper time machine as fortunes rise and fall. 

The game contains three scenarios which divide the color-coded 
cards into decks simulating the Early, Middle, and Late Republic. 
Those wishing a larger game can combine them into a Campaign 
Game of truly epic proportions. 



No. 


TITLE 


Players 


Ages 


Complexity 


Solitaire 
Suitability 


Suggested 
Retail 


885 


Republic 
of Rome 


1 

to 6 


12 

& up 


High 


High 


$35.00 





Km 

m 



The Avalon Hill Game Company 



DIVISION OF MONARCH AVALON, INC. 



4517 Harford Road * Baltimore, MD 21214 * 301-254-9200 * FAX 301-254-0991 
To order call TOLL FREE 1-800-999-3222 



3 FOR THE 
PRICE OF 



Pick any 3 issues — pay only the single issue 
price of $4,00. If you want more — fine — pick 
out 3 more issues. In fact, select as many 
sets of 3 issues as you want! Then pay just 
$4 for each set of 3 issues. Offer expires 
December 31, 1991 or when supply runs out , 
whichever comes first. Select from these 25 
great issues of past years; featured game 
is indicated under each... 



MM 







Vol.19 NO.6 
VICTORY IN PACIFIC 




Vol.22 No a 

PANZER LEADER 




Vol. 2.3 Na.3 
SUBMARINE 




Vol.23 No.4 
EMPIRES IN ARMS 



Vol.23 No.5 
KNIGHTS OF THE AIR 



Vol.25 No.3 
PATTON'S BEST 



Vol.25 No.4 
ENEMY IN SIGHT 



NOT NECESSARY TO USE THIS COUPON— YOUR ORDER ON A BLANK SHEET WILL DO 



Kill 

am 



The Avalon Hill Game Company 

DIVISION OF MONARCH AVALON, INC. 

451 7 Harford Road * Baltimore, MD 21214 

Check issues desired. Make check or money-order payable to The Avalon Hill 

Game Company. Enclose 14 for each set of 3 issues. BE SURE to add postage 
and handling: 10% USA; 20% Canada. Mexico; 30% foreign. 



NAME. 



ADDRESS . 



CITY, STATE, ZIP . 



Q Vol.14 No.5 
□ Vol.17 No.4 
P Vol.18 No.4 
P Vol.18 No.6 
D Vol.19 No.1 
P Vol.19 No.2 
P Vol.19 No.5 
P Vol.19 No.6 



P Vol.20 No.1 
P Vol.21 No.5 
P Vol.21 No.6 
P Vol.22 No.1 
P Vol.22 No.2 
P Vol.22 No.3 
P Vol.22 No.4 
D Vol.22 No 5 
O Vol.22 No.6 



P Vol.23 No.1 
P Vol.23 No.2 
P Vol.23 No.3 
D Vot.23 No.4 
P Vof.23 No.5 
P Vol.23 No.6 
P Vol.25 No.3 
P Vol.25 No.4 



Please Indicate Method of Payment: 
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For quick credit card purchasing, call TOLL FREE 1-800-999-3222 



Offer good while supply lasts— expires December 31 , 1991. 



GHOSTS IN 

HISTORICAL ASL Scenario A 



THE RUBBLE 



A 




VICTORY CONDITIONS: The Russians win if at game end they Control 
>: 6 more building/rabble/trench Locations than they lost (or than they 
started with if they lost none). 

TURN RECORD CHART 



Southeast of The BARRIKADY, 31 October 1942: The last terry-landing across 
the Volga was under German machinegun fire and the Russians were barely holding 
their positions in the rubble around Krasny Oktyabr and the Barrilcady even as 
the anniversary of the October Revolution approached. Rather than waiting passively 
for the final blow, the Soviet "Army Military Council" ordered a counterattack 
on the exhausted enemy before they could muster their strength. The task of widen- 
ing the Soviet "bridgehead" fell to elements of Lt. Colonel Vasili Sokolov's 45th 
Rifle Division, recently brought across the Volga to take position between the two 
great factory complexes. After a 30- minute barrage, the assault troops were to 
press forward and reach the railway line, bypassing enemy strongpoints and small 
pockets, leaving them to be mopped up by divisional reserves. The lead troops, 
drawn from the 253rd Rifle Regiment, were exhorted to advance "boldly and 
rapidly". On this All Hallow's Eve, Sokolov's men— the brick dust making them 
appear almost ghostly— scrambled forward, keeping dose to the rolling barrage 
laid down by the big guns across the river. 

MAP: 



BALANCE: 

Extend Game Length to TA Turns. 
# Add 12 A-P Mine factors to German OB. 




(Only those hexes numbered 2: 38 
onteas[-0f hcxrow U are in play.) 



# GERMAN [141] Sets Up First 



RUSSIAN U24] Moves First 



1 



, 



END 





Elements of Panzergrenadier 


Regiment 103, Panzer Division 14 [ELR: 4] set up 


on/west-of hexgrains CC38-Y40- Y45 : {SAN: 3} 




Trench 

Othtr: +2 




4'-fi-e 


4'.g-7 


m 

4-4-7 


| S 


l S 


fi * 


g» o 


i MUG 

/*\5-!Z 


I Lin; 

Jim 

! 3-8 




■ 
7 mnraCH 


3 2 2 






Elements of the 253rd Rifle Regiment, 45th Rifle Division [ELR: 4] set up within four hexes of hex EE43: {SAN: 3} 

























Trench 

(Wfl.OBA: +4 
Othoj: +Z 

5Sd& 


ftf 

4-5-8 


ftf 

4-4-7 


5-2-7 


2-4-B 


frs 


I s 




1 HMG 

mm 


I ins 

m 


, 1MB 

T - ill 
1 2-6 


7 

■ 

7 hwtiIb 



11 



SPECIAL RULES: 

1. See RB SSR (found on the back of scenario RB5). 

2. Each player may designate up to five Fortified Building Locations (B23.9). 
The German player (only) may instead substitute six A-P Mine factors for 
each Fortified Building Location he does not designate. 

3. Despite not being the "Scenario Attacker", the Russians receive one 
120 + mm Creeping Barrage (El 2. 7) with an automatic black initial Battery 
Access draw (E12.72); the barrage Hex Grain must parallel the east edge of 
the map. 

4. Only Locations in the allowed German setup area are German-Controlled; 
all others are Russian-Controlled. 



AFTERMATH: In Chuikov's view, the counterattack was a great success. Despite 
horrendous casualties, in some places the Russians advanced a hundred yards or more. 
The decimated 253rd occupied the left side of Novosetskaya for its entire length, and 
gained a foothold in the western fringe of the industrial park. Meanwhile, elements of 
the 39th Guards Division had simultaneously retaken several rubbled shops in the Krasny 
Oktyabr factory to the south. But more important than the ground gained was the fact 
that the Russians had shown that they could not only defend themselves but could indeed, 
even in such dire straits, successfully attack in the rubbled city. The final blow, at the 
end of a month of bitter Fighting in Stalingrad, had been delivered by the Red Army, 
not the Wchrmacht. This was the moral victory that Chuikov brought Stalin to celebrate 
the Revolution during Russia's grim struggle. 



AVALANCHE! 



ASL SCENARIO G12 






PI 

uKp'4 

HP 





£) 



South of NALCHIK, RUSSIA, 6 February 1943: On the 2 1 st of August, troops 
of the 1st Mountain Division scaled the sides of 17000-foot Mount El'Brus, The 
unopposed action gave hope to the commanders of the German 1 7th Army, whose 
forces were wailing to break through the passes of the Caucasus and sweep on 
towards the Black Sea coast beyond. But, by dint of numbers and sacrifice, Soviet 
forces managed to halt the Gebirgsjaegers all along the northeastern slopes. In 
November, STAVKA launched a caunteroffensive to drive the enemy from the 
Caucasus Mountains back across the Kerch Strait. Key would be control of the 
far end of those same passes the Germans desired. Even as the disaster at Stalin- 
grad unfolded, German mountain troops and their Soviet counterparts fought in- 
numerable small battles which seesawed across the ridges and slopes of the high 
range in horrific weather conditions. In the foothills of El'Brus itself, the struggle 
was for control of the various parallel ridge lines radiating from the massif. For 
almost three months the German 1st Mountain and the Russian 3 J 8th Mountain 
Rifle divisions were locked together. February 6th was a typical day, as simul- 
taneous attacks on two ridges separated by a shallow valley were launched under 
grey skies. 

BOARD CONFIGURATION: 



VICTORY CONDITIONS: The first player to Control a three level-4 
hexes on each board simultaneously at the end of any Game Turn wins 
immediately. Should neither player win in this manner, victory is awarded 
to the side that has amassed more Casualty VP at game end; a tie in CVP 
is considered a Russian win. 

TURN RECORD CHART 



BALANCE: 

'; German player must set up first. First move is still 
determined by random dr. 
# Russian player must set up first. First move is still 
determined by random dr. 



A 
N 



9 



91 



SIMULTANEOUS Setup 



First Move Randomly Determined 

(see SSR 3) 



1 



8 



10 



END 



nir 


Elements of Gebirgsjaeger Division 1 [ELR: 4] set up on board 9: {SAN: 4} 










m 

4*-£-8 


2-2-8 


** 


1 = 


n * 


n s 


| HUG 

4*03 


ti« 
JstD 

1 3-8 


5B-IZ-13I 


DC 


■MM 

tip} 




•i 


4 


3 


2 


24 

factors 




e MTR 

<"*Ml1 

my 

81* |!-80] 


t IHF 

\ Mid 

in *v 

75* ^ 


Foxhole 
s"** is 

mil, D!A: +i 
M»H: +2 























• 


Elements of the 318th Mountain Rifle Division [ELR: 3] set up on 1 


joard 15: {SAN: 2} 




ft-2-8 


4-4-7 


Jiff 

2-3-7 


M 

2-2-8 


fr 1 


k- 


k* 


iSt 


1 M 




KlMtlsId 




3 


5 


2 3 3 24 




%ART 
76 ^ 


Foxhole 
5 IS 

an, (Mr *4 
Oltar; -1-2 






2 16 























SPECIAL RULES: 

1. EC are Ground Snow and Overcast, with no wind at start. 

2. Buildings and walls do not exist; all roads are Tracks (F9. J). Alpine Hill 
rules (B10.21 1) are in effect. Snow Drifts (E3.75) are in effect; place a Drift 
counter in each of the following hexes as per E3.751: 9D3, 914. 9Q5, 9R5, 
9V2, 9DD2, 15H2, I5L3, 1503, 15U2, 15V6, 15BB5. 

3. Setup is simultaneous. Stand an extra board across the playing area so 
neither player may see the other's setup. When both sides have finished setting 
up, a random dr made by each player (and modified by adding his side's ELR) 
determines which will move first; the player with the higher Final dr moves 
first. 

4. Both sides are ski-capable (E4.2), have Winter Camouflage (E3.7I2), and 
are considered Commandos for Stealth (Alt. 17) and Climbing (B 11.433) 
purposes. 



S. The resolution of each attack emanating -from/resolved -in a hill hex that 
contains a Drift counter must involve a third die. If the result on the third 
die is "6", an avalanche has been triggered. Move the Drift counter to the 
nearest lower elevation hex (in the event of equidistant tower elevation hexes, 
determine the one affected randomly). All units/SW/Guns/Fortifications in 
the hex to which the Drift is moved are immediately eliminated, 
AFTERMATH: For seven hours, from dawn to dusk, the mountain troops fought for 
control of the two ridgelincs. Amid the occasional snow squall, the confused fighting 
brought neither side an advantage— until a small avalanche triggered by a sniper swept 
away a Soviet machinegun nest and the belt of mines it was covering. With this break 
in die defenses, the Gebirgsjaegers were able to gain a foothold on the opposing slope. 
Bui, despite heroic efforts, they were unable to expand it as additional Russian rein- 
forcements poured into the area. However, decisions being made far to the west made 
such heroism irrelevant. The same day, a general withdrawal by Army Group A from 
the Caucasus to the Taman Peninsula had been authorized, A few days later the 1st 
Gebirgsjaeger Division would begin the long retreat back to Germany from its "high- 
water mark' 1 on the slopes of Mount EFBrus. 



T he GENERAL 

fr 

WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN 
PLAYING? 

Top ten lists are always in vogue— be the subject books, television, 
shows, movies or even games. The public seems never to tire of seeing 
how its favorite way of spending their leisure time stacks up against the 
competition. So, to cater further to your whims (and to satisfy our own 
curiosity), this is The GENERAUs version of the gamer's top ten. From 
the responses to this form the editors produce the regular column "So 
That's What You've Been Playing" found elsewhere in this issue. 

We aren 't asking you to subjectively rate any game. That sort of thing 
is already done in these pages and elsewhere. Instead, we ask that you 
merely list the three (or fewer) games which you've spent the most time 
playing since you received your last issue of The GENERAL. With the 
collation of these responses, we can generate a consensus list of what's 
being played by our readership. This list can serve both as a guide for 
us (for coverage in these pages) and others (convention organizers spring 
instantly to mind). The degree of correlation between this listing, the 
Best Sellers Lists, and the RBG should prove extremely interesting, 

Feei free to list any game of any sort regardless of manufacturer. There 
will be, of course, a built-in bias to the survey since the readers all play 
Avalon Hill games to some extent; but it should be no more prevalent 
than similar projects undertaken by other periodicals with special-interest 
based circulation. The amount to which this bias affects the final out- 
come will be left to the individual's own evaluation. 




CARRIER $35.00 

Solitaire Game of the Southwest 
Pacific Campaign, 1942-43 



INSTRUCTIONS: 

Rate each category by placing a number 
ranging from 1 through 9 in the appropriate 
space to the right { Jr 1" equating to excellent? 
"6", average; "9", terrible). EXCEPTION: Rate 
items 7a end 7b in terms of minutes neces- 
sary to play the game, in ten-minute incre- 
ments. (Example: If you've found it takes two 
and a half hours to play the basic scenario 
of HITLER'S WAR, enter "15" fof category 
7a. I For an explanation of the categories, 
refer to the AH Philosophy of Vol. 24, No. 5. 
Enter ratings only for those categories relevant 
to the game in question. Note that AH's ratings 
for Complexity, Year of Publication and Type 
(2P=two player: MP = multi-player: SO = solitaire) 
have been provided for your information. 



1. 


Overall Value 


2. 


Components 


2a. 


Mapbnard 


2b. 


Counters 


2c 


Rufebook 


3. 


Complexity 


3a, 


Avalon Hilt Complexity 


4. 


Completeness 


5. 


Playabilfty 


6a 


Excitement Level 


6b 


Play Balance 


e. 


Authenticity 


7. 


Game Length 


7a. 


Shortest 


/h. 


Longest 


8. 


Year of Publication 


S. 


Type 



1990 
SO 



Opponent Wanted 



50C 



1 . Want-ads will be accepted only when primed on this form or a facsimile and must be accompanied 
by a 50c token fee. No refunds. Payment may be made in uncancelled U.S. postage stamps. 

2. for Sate, Trade, or Wanted To Buy ads wilt not be accepted. No refunds. 

3. Insert copy on lines provided (25 words maximum) and print name, address, and phone number on 
the appropriate tines. 

4. Please PRrNT. If your ad is illegible, it will not be printed. 

5. So that as many ads as possible can be primed within our limited space, we request that you use 
official stare and game abbreviations. Don't list your entire collection, list only those you arc most 
interested in locating opponents for. 

Advanced Squad Leader— ASL. Afrika Korps— AK, Air Force— AF, Anzio— AZ, Blitzkrclg— BL. 
Britannia— BRIT, Battle Of The Bulge— BB. BullRun-BR, Circus Maximus— CM, Civili-ation— CIV. 
D-Day— DD. Devil's Den— DEV. Diplomacy— DIP. Empires in Arms— EJA, Enemy in Sight— EIS, 
Firepower— FP, Flat Top— FT. Flight Leader— FL, Gettysburg— GE. Gladiator— GL. Hitler's War— 
HW, Kremlin— KR. Kingmakcr-KM, Knights of the Air— KOTA, The Longest Day—TLB, Luftwaffe- 
LW, Magic Realm— MR, Merchant of Venus— MOV, Midway— MD, Napoleon's Battles— NB, Naval 
War— NAV, New World— NW, PanzcrArmce Aftika— I&A, Panzerblitz— PB, PanzcrGrupps Guderian— 
PGG, Panzerkrieg-PK, Panzer Leader— PL. Rail Buon-RB. Republic of Rome— ROR, Richlhofen's 
War— RW. The Russian Campaign— TRC, Russian Front- RF, Siege of Jerusalem— SOJ, Stellar 
Conquest— SC. Squad Leader— SL, Storm Over Arhhem— SO A, Tac Air— TA, Third Reich— 3R, Thunder 
at Cassino— CASS. Titan— TT. Turning Point: Stalingrad— TPS, Up From— UF, Victory In The Pacific— 
Vrrp, War and Peace- W&P, Wat At Sea— WAS, Walerloo-WAT, Wooden Ships & Iron Men— WSfM. 



NAME. 



PHONE 



ADDRESS 



, CITY 



STATE 



ZIP. 



CONTEST #154 

Cryptography (code-breaking) Is an essential element of warfare, and every combatant power 

In World War n had extensive Intelligence sections devoted to [his art. Being as the readers should 
be versed in all aspects of the simulation of military conflict. I thought it time to test your abili- 
ties. Below is a simple substitution cypher, a short paragraph concerning one of the best-known 
military geniuses in history. To enter the contest, just send us the text of the paragraph in plain 
English, And to give you a boost, a clue: the titles of six Avalon Hill games appear in the message. 
The answer to this contest may be entered on any convenient form (sorry , phone calls and 
electronic mail not accepted). Ten winning entries will receive a merchandise credit from The 
Avalon Hill Game Company. To be valid, an entry must include a numerical rating for this issue 
as a whole and a listing of the three best ardcles in the judgement of the contestant. The solution of 
Contest 154 will appear in Vol. 27, No, 2 and the list of winners in Vol. 27.No. 3 of The GENERAL. 

PKNWCM SLCMGLCMBBDDMD 
PKNWCM FEDDBBCMCMBB RWAF PKNWCM FPDDGLMRCMBB 
MDCMDDRBCMBB, CMBBBLBRGL BBRWAKAKCMMD, FEDDGL 
FRCM BBCMFEBBCMDDPKCMRB PKNWBBRWGESLNW PKNWCM 
SLDDAKCMFT RWAF DDPBDDMDRWGL NWBRMDMD, PKNWCM 
FRBRSL FPBRFEPKGEBBCM FEDDGL FRCM FTCMCMGL BRGL 
PKNWBRBBRB BBCMBRFENW DDGLRB AFBBDDGLFECM 
GLBRGLCMPKCMCMGL-AFRWBBPKLW, NWBRFT 
FRBBBRMDMDBRDDGLPK GLRWBBPKNW DDAFBBBRFEDDGL 
FEDDAKFPDDBRSLGL PKNWBBRWGESLNW DDAFBBBRFLDD 
FLRWBBFPFT DDGLRB FPDDGLMRCMBBDDBBAKCMCM 
DDAFBBBRFEDD. PKNWCM BLCMDDFPRWGLFT DDGLRB 
PKDDFEPKBRFEFT RWAF PKNWCM SLDDMRDDMDDD 
FRDDPKPKMDCMFT FEDDGL FRCM FTPKGERBBRCMRB BRGL 
RBCMPKDDBRMD GEFTBRGLSL PKRWFRBBGEFL. 



Jssue as a whole (Rate from I to 10, with M I " equating excellent and "10" terrible). 

To be valid for consideration, your contest entry must also include the three best articles, in 
your view: 



2. 

3. 

NAME. 



ADDRESS 
CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 



~J> 




AVALONCON BULLETIN BOARD 

MORE LATE BREAKING VIEWS OF THE UPCOMING EVENTS IN CAMP HILL, PA 



This is the last Bulletin Board before the 
inaugural Avaloncon on August 22nd- 
25th in Camp Hill, PA. Next issue the 
Bulletin Board will be devoted to an After 
Action report of the festivities. We hope 
you can join us for the fun, but if not 
we'll bring you all the details of what you 
missed right here. 

Pre-rcgistration for the convention has shown 
that appoximately 80% of those booking rooms 
at the Penn Harris are arriving Thursday 
evening, so we've expanded the list of events - 
official and otherwise - to Thursday evening 
for the early arrivals. Never fear, the published 
starting limes for your favorite events remain 
unchanged but we'll be adding some new ones 
to the program with a heavy emphasis on 
Thursday starts to fill the evening hours before 
things get hot and heavy. 

Pre-registration for these last-minute events is 
unavailable, but as is the case with all tourna- 
ments at Avaloncon you are guaranteed a spot 
by being present al the announced starting time 
with a copy of the game. Plaques and other 
prizes will be awarded on an equal basis with 
our original events. These events are also eligi- 
ble for the Team Tournament. Anyone wishing 
to prc-rcgistcr for these events as their entry in 
the Team Tournament may do so simply by 
writing in the title on their form. Those who 
have already p re-registered who wish to change 
their game preference may do so by mail or 
calling 1-301-254-9200 (extension 320) by 
August 15lh. As always, events are free to all 
registered attendees. 



1-4: 




$ 




8-6 




m 

1-4" 



FORTRESS EUROPA has been added to the 
offerings on Thursday night at 6 PM as a 
Single Elimination tournament. Randy Heller 
from Lemon Grove, CA will Gamesmaslcr the 



33.3 "Invasion" scenario. Rule 29.5 is in 
effect: mulberry damage occurs only on a die 
roll of "6". Optional rule 31,9 (31.13 in the 
second edition) is not in effect. Hidden German 
set-up units must be recorded and given to 
judge prior to play. The Allied player may 
make two paradrops; the German player may 
conduct one. 




NEW WORLD will also make a 6 PM 
Thursday appearance in a Single Elimination 
tournament run by Ray Pfeiffer. As is custom- 
ary with the multi-player games, the Games- 
master will have freedom of action to allow 
additional players to advance to the next 
round in the interest of providing the optimum 
number of players per game in each round. 



Sheridan 
Ca\ F 



Granl 

§ 



R. E. Lse 



Sluart 
Cav r 



LEE VS GRANT will also start at 6 PM 
Thursday under the guidance of Victory 
Games' Kevin Boylan. Play will be in four- 
hour rounds using the Advanced Game rules 
and the Medium Game scenario (six turns). 
A Single Elimination format will be used 
with any survivors after three rounds being 
judged on a point basis. 



1 1 4 




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[Slreut 

12 4 8 



Three four-player Demonstration games of 
the GULF STRIKE DESERT SHIELD expan- 
sion will be started at 10 AM Friday under 
Kevin Boylan and designer/military analyst 
Mark Herman. Here's your chance to sec 
what would have happened had Saddam 
Hussein's army invaded Saudi Arabia in 
August before the Allies massed their over- 
whelming superior forces. 







r-l'i." 




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SCURVY 
Combat 




Teach 



P"H 



Jim Vroom hosts a Single Elimination tourna- 
ment of the new BLACKBOARD game at 7 PM 
Saturday. Players will be grouped into games 
of four wherever possible with only the win- 
ners advancing. Players will be limited to two 
Pirates per game. 



Aidiidmus 




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1 



Designer Mark Herman will run a Single 
Elimination tournament of his new PELOPON- 
NESIAN WAR starling at 9 AM Saturday. 
Players must alternate playing the Spartan and 
Athenian sides whenever possible. Kevin 
Boylan will host a four-hour solitaire tourna- 
ment for CARRIER at noon on Saturday for 
those who would rather compete wilh them- 
selves a la B-17. The scenario will be 
Operation "NE", which assumes that the 
Japanese offensive of June, 1942 was directed 
at the New Hebrides inslead of Midway. All 
players will face the same Japanese 
Commitment Levels with idcniical forces. 

Cliff Willis and Bill Geary will be running a 
tournament in the new German sensation 
A DEL VERPFLICHTET on Sunday morning al 
9 AM. They will also be demonstrating ihis 
extremely easy-to-learn game on Thursday 
evening and often throughout the convention. 

FIFTH FLEET will be run by Kevin Boylan as 
a four-hour event on Sunday morning at 9 AM, 
The Battle of the Maldives scenario will be 
used, and each entrant will play the scenario 
twice, switching sides and opponcnls. The win- 
ner will be determined by an aggregate score 
combining the points gained while playing the 
Allied side, and the points surrendered while 
playing the Indian side. 




TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS 

All pre-registrants to AVALONCON 
will be receiving a convention program 
in (he mail weeks before the show, but 
for those whom the Post Office betrays 
or who register too late, we repeat our 
[ravel advice here. 

* The Camp Hill Bus and Train station are 
three miles away from the Perm Harris. A 
taxi from either location will cost in the 
vicinity of $5 to $7. 



The Harrisburg airport provides an airport 
limo service lo the Pcnn Harris for S15 per 
trip. The cosl can be split between multi- 
person parties, 

When traveling by car from the Philadelphia 
area, proceed west on the PA Turnpike 
(1-76) to Exit 17. Drive north on U.S. 15 for 
six miles. 

From New York, drive south on the New 
Jersey Turnpike lo Exit 6. Proceed west on 
the PA Turnpike to Exit 17. Drive north on 
U.S. 15 for six miles. 



• From Pittsburgh and points West: drive east 
on PA Turnpike to Exit 17 and then north 
on U.S. 15 for six miles. 

• From York, Baltimore and Washington; 
drive north on 1-83 to the PA Turnpike's 
Entrance 18. Proceed west on the Turnpike 
to Exit 17 and then north on U.S. 15 for 
six miles. 

• From Hazleton, Potts ville, Upper NY Stale 
and Canada; drive south on 1-81 to exit 21 
(Enola). Proceed south on U.S. 11/15 for 
5'/2 miles. Turn right at the third light. 




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Room Reservation 



WAVALONCON r. 



AUGUST 22: Pre Registration, 
Open Gaming, and unofficial 
tournaments only begin at 6 PM. 



22-25, 
991 

Complete the following form and return it with the required deposit to: Penn Harris Inn, P.O. Box 839, Camp Hill, PA 17001. Or call 1-800- 345-PENN. 
We suggest you make your room reservations promptly, as we cannot guarantee availability after 8 August 1991. Be sure to fill out the form carefully, 
as the Penn Harris will honor only those reservations received with complete information and deposit or guarantee. 



Name: 



Address: 



City: 



State: 



Zip: 



Phone: 



Arrival Date: 



Departure Date: 

Check-in time is 3:00 PM. 

Check-out time is 1:00 PM. 

Reservations which are not guaranteed by check (made out to Ftenn Harris 

Inn) or credit card will only be held until 5:00 PM. 



Rate Per Night: Deposit: 

H One Person/S60.00 Plus S3.60 $63.60 

D Two People/$60.00 Plus $3.60 $63.60 

□ Three People/ $60.00 Plus $3.60 $63.60 

□ Four Feople/$60.00 Plus $3.60 $63.60 

No more than four people per room. 

I will share this room with: 

Name: 



Credit Card and Number: 



Exp. Date:. 



Name: 



Name: 



Deposit 



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Throughout the weekend, the ADVANCED THIRD 
REICH design team and play testers will be on hand 
playing and organizing demonstration games. The fun 
will start Thursday evening at 6 PM, Fourth edition 
players are encouraged to stop by to discuss and/or play 
the new edition. ADVANCED THIRD REICH rules and 
articles will be available. For players who want to play 
the playtesters a limited number of advance copies of 
the rules will be available, and you are encouraged to 
contact Conrad Struckman, 110 W. Marshall St., 
Ithaca, NY 14850 in advance. 




Ken Whitcsell brings a host of newly designed 
scenarios to an old favorite while hosting PANZER- 
BLITZ. The event will be Single Elimination until the 
field is reduced to 16, at which point Double Elimina- 
tion will commence. Standard rules will prevail 
throughout. 

AREA postal champ Tom Oleson will put his title 
on the line in hosting the eleven-turn basic game of 
ANZIO in a Single Elimination format. Finalists may 
mutually agree to a longer or more advanced version. 
For Play Balance purposes, the Allies will receive a 
ten step Replacement bonus for control of Napoli. 




Designer Neal Schlaffer will be on hand to administer 
the ENEMY IN SIGHT tournament in a Single Elimi- 
nation format Saturday afternoon. As with the other 
multi-piayer games, depending on the number of 
entrants a certain number of high -placing non-winners 
may advance to the next round for purposes of provid- 
ing a full game. 

1830 and CIVILIZATION v/il] be run by Ray Pfeiffcr 
and Nick Atlas respectively in either two or three rounds 
dependent on the number of entrants. Play will be single 
elimination, but the GM will have freedom to allow 
a certain number of non-winning high finishers to 
advance for purposes of fielding a full game in the next 
round. In each case, the GM will announce prior to 
play the requirements for advancement. 

Grognards will recognize the name of Charles 
Hickok, an advertiser in the very first issue of The 
GENERAL. He will be on hand to run a single elimi- 
nation tournament of PANZERGRUPPE GUDERIAN. 
The GM will randomly determine the movement status 
of each Soviet Army for each round before players 
determine sides by sealed Victory Point bids. For more 
detailed information on the tournament rules, send a 
SASE with your questions to Mr. Hickok (250 Hidden 
Valley Lane, Harrisburg, PA 17112). 

And what would AvalonCon be without Tom Shaw 
hosting a FOOTBALL STRATEGY event? Plenty of the 
members of the Avalon Hill Football Strategy League 
will be on hand to make sure he doesn't walk off with 
the honors. 

Other games on tap will include: BULGE '91, 
WATERLOO, STALINGRAD. THIRD REICH. WS&iM, 
BRITANNIA, KINGMAKER, FLIGHT l£ADER. WAR 
AT SEA, CIRCUS MAXIMUS and A TTACK SUB. Stay 
tuned for more details in future issues.